Ethical Issues

ETHICAL ISSUES 4

EthicalIssues

ResearchEthics

Part1

Accordingto Milgram (2009), the Milgramexperimentwas conducted to examine the people’s willingness to obey theirrules given by the authority. The experiment sought to assess thesocial and psychological influences that make people obey rulesirrespective of their desires and beliefs. The results showed thatsignificant number of participants was prepared to obey rules even ifit was causing harm or distress to their wellbeing. Though theexperiment was largely successful, it generated number of ethicalissues. Key among them was the usage of human subjects in experiments(Milgram, 2009). The StanfordPrison Experiment aimedat undertaking psychological tests within a prison environment, withthe involvement of both guards and prisoners. The guards took up theauthoritative roles hence exposing the prisoners to psychologicaldistress. The prisoners would obey the guards’ orders with thesenior officials allowing all manner of torture. Two participantsquit the experiment before it ended pre-maturely (O’Toole, 1997).

Thetwo experiments generate criticisms regarding their adherence toresearch ethics during experimentation with human subjects. Theexperiments are condemned for subjecting the participants toemotional stress and pain. However, Milgram and Zimbardo claim thatthe former participants were largely ‘glad’ to have participatedin the exercise. By today’s standards, the two experiments wouldnot have been allowed. Research ethics require the researchers toinform the participants about all the consequences following theirparticipation in an experiment. The trials caused emotional stressand pain on the participants, something that is disallowed when usinghuman objects.Usage of human elements in experimentation generates ethicalconsiderations. Often, human subjects are subjected to poorconditions such as less-conducive environment as seen in the twoexperiments. As a result, debate has emerged regarding theappropriate strategies to use in order to minimize the poor treatmentof animals. Looking at such details presents a grave picture aboutthe poor ethical practices during experimentation.

Part2

Accordingto Zimbardo (2016), the experiments highlighted above did not observestrict ethical guidelines that give room for informed consent andconfidentiality when dealing with human elements duringexperimentation. There was element of deception where the researchersconcealed important information to the participants. Further, the twoexperiments used human subjects as participants. The participants didnot experience long-term effects with some expressing theirsatisfaction in participating in the exercise. Another common issueis that the researchers failed to strictly consider the interests ofthe human elements participating in the study (Zimbardo, 2016).Nonetheless, the two generated important debate that openedunderstanding important matters in social psychology.

Zimbardobelieves that the two experiments did their best to protect the humansubjects. He also agrees that the ethical concerns by the society areappropriate although serious adherence to the ethical guidelineswould have affected the results of the study (Zimbardo, 2016).Zimbardo considers that the two experiments have proved important tothe society and social psychology field. Nonetheless, he believesthat protecting the subjects too much denies new knowledge to thesociety. As such, Zimbardo proposes that the ethical committees needto allow controversial experiments but through proper monitoring froman independent body. Devoid of ethics and morals, one is likely toengage in activities that are disallowed in the society (TheSituationist Staff, 2009).More importantly, understanding the ethical matters requires a‘multi-layered technique. This helps in formulating the bestpractices and ethical standards while solving the ethical dilemmalikely to emerge in the society.

References

Milgram,S. (2009). Obedienceto authority: An experimental view.New York, NY: Perennials.

O’Toole,K. (1997, Jan 8). The Stanford Prison Experiment: Still powerfulafter all these years. Stanford News Service. Web. Retrieved on 18Feb 2016 from http://news.stanford.edu/pr/97/970108prisonexp.html

Zimbardo,G.P. (2016). The power of norms and groups on individuals: Parallelsbetween the Stanford Prison Experiment and Milgram’s ObedienceResearch. TheLucifer Effect.Retrieved from http://www.lucifereffect.com/links_add_norms.htm

TheSituationist Staff, (2009). Zimbardo on Milgram and obedience –Part I. TheSituatinist.Retrieved fromhttps://thesituationist.wordpress.com/2009/04/14/zimbardo-milgram-and-obedience-part-i/

Ethical Issues

ETHICAL ISSUES 4

EthicalIssues

ResearchEthics

Part1

Accordingto Milgram (2009), the Milgramexperimentwas conducted to examine the people’s willingness to obey theirrules given by the authority. The experiment sought to assess thesocial and psychological influences that make people obey rulesirrespective of their desires and beliefs. The results showed thatsignificant number of participants was prepared to obey rules even ifit was causing harm or distress to their wellbeing. Though theexperiment was largely successful, it generated number of ethicalissues. Key among them was the usage of human subjects in experiments(Milgram, 2009). The StanfordPrison Experiment aimedat undertaking psychological tests within a prison environment, withthe involvement of both guards and prisoners. The guards took up theauthoritative roles hence exposing the prisoners to psychologicaldistress. The prisoners would obey the guards’ orders with thesenior officials allowing all manner of torture. Two participantsquit the experiment before it ended pre-maturely (O’Toole, 1997).

Thetwo experiments generate criticisms regarding their adherence toresearch ethics during experimentation with human subjects. Theexperiments are condemned for subjecting the participants toemotional stress and pain. However, Milgram and Zimbardo claim thatthe former participants were largely ‘glad’ to have participatedin the exercise. By today’s standards, the two experiments wouldnot have been allowed. Research ethics require the researchers toinform the participants about all the consequences following theirparticipation in an experiment. The trials caused emotional stressand pain on the participants, something that is disallowed when usinghuman objects.Usage of human elements in experimentation generates ethicalconsiderations. Often, human subjects are subjected to poorconditions such as less-conducive environment as seen in the twoexperiments. As a result, debate has emerged regarding theappropriate strategies to use in order to minimize the poor treatmentof animals. Looking at such details presents a grave picture aboutthe poor ethical practices during experimentation.

Part2

Accordingto Zimbardo (2016), the experiments highlighted above did not observestrict ethical guidelines that give room for informed consent andconfidentiality when dealing with human elements duringexperimentation. There was element of deception where the researchersconcealed important information to the participants. Further, the twoexperiments used human subjects as participants. The participants didnot experience long-term effects with some expressing theirsatisfaction in participating in the exercise. Another common issueis that the researchers failed to strictly consider the interests ofthe human elements participating in the study (Zimbardo, 2016).Nonetheless, the two generated important debate that openedunderstanding important matters in social psychology.

Zimbardobelieves that the two experiments did their best to protect the humansubjects. He also agrees that the ethical concerns by the society areappropriate although serious adherence to the ethical guidelineswould have affected the results of the study (Zimbardo, 2016).Zimbardo considers that the two experiments have proved important tothe society and social psychology field. Nonetheless, he believesthat protecting the subjects too much denies new knowledge to thesociety. As such, Zimbardo proposes that the ethical committees needto allow controversial experiments but through proper monitoring froman independent body. Devoid of ethics and morals, one is likely toengage in activities that are disallowed in the society (TheSituationist Staff, 2009).More importantly, understanding the ethical matters requires a‘multi-layered technique. This helps in formulating the bestpractices and ethical standards while solving the ethical dilemmalikely to emerge in the society.

References

Milgram,S. (2009). Obedienceto authority: An experimental view.New York, NY: Perennials.

O’Toole,K. (1997, Jan 8). The Stanford Prison Experiment: Still powerfulafter all these years. Stanford News Service. Web. Retrieved on 18Feb 2016 from http://news.stanford.edu/pr/97/970108prisonexp.html

Zimbardo,G.P. (2016). The power of norms and groups on individuals: Parallelsbetween the Stanford Prison Experiment and Milgram’s ObedienceResearch. TheLucifer Effect.Retrieved from http://www.lucifereffect.com/links_add_norms.htm

TheSituationist Staff, (2009). Zimbardo on Milgram and obedience –Part I. TheSituatinist.Retrieved fromhttps://thesituationist.wordpress.com/2009/04/14/zimbardo-milgram-and-obedience-part-i/

Lego in London Ontario

Legoin London Ontario

Lego Company engages in various activities ranging from the sale ofcommodities. They sell men’s, women’s and children’s waresamong other spots commodities (Talapin, 2008). The company has mostof its operations based in London. However, there is a need for thecompany to explore the probability of venturing in other markets.

Objective

The project plan is aimed at providing a guideline with which theorganization can venture into other untapped markets. The decision toventure into Ontario market will increase the organization’scapability of enhancing their sales. The company can decide to supplyboth men’s and women’s clothes in addition to the children’swears. The project plan aims at determining how the company canventure into the market and exploit the opportunities available inOntario.

Research question

What are the benefits that would accrue to Lego upon diversifyingactivities in the Ontario.

Research tasks to be completed

  • Understand legal framework about labor laws

  • Identify competitors of the company

  • Identity professionals to carry out feasibility studies

  • Identify distribution channel

  • Identify competitors

ProposedTimeline

The project should take a period of six months. Considering thedynamic nature of the new markets, it could be mandatory to takeenough time to understand how the market operates. Six months isenough to carry out all of the activities.

Annotated Bibliography

Beringer, C.,Jonas, D., &amp Kock, A. (2013). Behavior of internal stakeholdersin project

Portfoliomanagement and its impact on success. International Journalof Project

Management,31(6), 830-846.

The article examines stakeholder’s duty to the management of theproject. Stakeholders play a role when it comes to ensuring thesuccess of the project. The article is of significance to thediscussion since it points out the role of stakeholders in ensuringthe success of the project.

Chan, A. P.,Scott, D., &amp Lam, E. W. (2002). Framework of success criteria fordesign/build

projects.Journal of Management in Engineering, 18(3),120-128.

The paper explores factors to be considered to achieve success for aparticular project. It explains the approach that can be used as ameasure of determining whether a particular project has been asuccess or not.

Gichoya, D.(2005). Factors affecting the successful implementation of ICTprojects in government. The Electronic Journal ofe-government, 3(4), 175-184.

The paper identifies factors required to achieve success regardingthe implementation of project management in a particular government.

Gido, J., &ampClements, J. (2014). Successful project management.Cengage Learning.

It highlights different attributes related to a project. Further,there is the aspect of the role stakeholders have in ensuring thesuccess of the project, and some of the constraints have also beendiscussed. It is helpful because of the different dimensions ofproject management that it does bring.

Hubbard, D. G., &ampBolles, D. (2012, August). Executive PMO–Blending Project

Management andBusiness Management. Project Management Institute.

The article examines need to have a clear strategy to assist variousenterprises to execute efficiently a project plan. It shows theefforts that have been made by the enterprises to help in improvementof project execution. The article is helpful as it provides anunderstanding of the project management plan but at the enterprise’sperspective.

Kerzner, H. R.(2013). Project management: a systems approach to planning,scheduling, and

controlling.John Wiley &amp Sons.

The paper addresses the contemporary issues related to projectmanagement. Particularly there is the concept of adoption of theproject management methodology and its use in a consistent manner toachieve the results. The book will be helpful in drafting the factorsneeded for the success of the project.

Muriithi, N., &amp Crawford, L. (2003). Approaches to projectmanagement

Implications forinternational development projects. International Journalof Project

Management,21(5), 309-319.

It elaborates the possibility and the relevance of using projectmanagement approaches, techniques, and tools identifies how to copewith the political and the demands of other regions on the project’sresources.

Narayanan, V. K.,&amp DeFillippi, R. (2012). The influence of strategic context onproject

managementsystems: a senior management perspective. ProjectGovernance:

GettingInvestments Right, 1.

The article looks at the role of the management regarding the successof a particular project. It identifies that the execution and successof the project are dependent upon the role the senior management doesin keeping the project on track to realize success. It helps since itgoes out of hand in focusing on the project team to other members notgiven much attention when it comes to project management.

Ochieng, E. G., &ampPrice, A. D. F. (2010). Managing cross-cultural communication in

multiculturalconstruction project teams: The case of Kenya and UK. International

Journal ofProject Management, 28(5), 449-460.

The paper seeks to have an understanding of the effect ofmulticulturalism and the challenges that it would bring to theexecution of the project. The same is helpful in understandingmarkets and its dynamics.

Teller, J., Kock,A., &amp Gemünden, H. G. (2014). Risk management in projectportfolios is

more thanmanaging project risks: a contingency perspective on risk management.

ProjectManagement Journal, 45(4), 67-80.

The article looks at the possible risks that are associated withfailure of the project. It further tries to point out the measuresthat can be taken to help avoid the risk of a project failing bygiving insights into the identification of the risks and how toaddress them. The article will be helpful because of the conceptsthat it presents as regards the issue of project risks.

Turner, J. R.(2014). The handbook of project-based management(Vol. 92). McGraw-hill.

The book looks at the measures that can be used to ensure the successof a particular project in question. It gives the strategies that theproject team can use as a way of ensuring they achieve the results ofthe project. It is a sound source to be used because of the wealth ofknowledge that it provides when it comes to various aspects ofproject management.

Relevant industry association

There are different industries that the company belongs to notablyBritish Interiors &amp Textiles Association interiortextiles.co.ukand Association of Suppliers to the British Clothing Industry withtheir website being www.asbci.co.uk. Both of the associations relate to Lego since they deal in the sameline.

References

Beringer, C., Jonas,D., &amp Kock, A. (2013). Behavior of internal stakeholders inproject

portfoliomanagement and its impact on success. International Journal ofProject

Management,31(6), 830-846.

Burke, R. (2013).Project management: planning and control techniques. NewJersey, USA.

Gido, J., &ampClements, J. (2014). Successful project management. CengageLearning.

Heagney, J. (2012).Fundamentals of project management. AMACOM Div American Mgmt

Assn.

Hubbard, D. G., &ampBolles, D. (2012, August). Executive PMO–Blending Project

Management andBusiness Management. Project Management Institute.

Kerzner, H. R.(2013). Project management: a systems approach to planning,scheduling, and

controlling.John Wiley &amp Sons.

Meng, X. (2012). Theeffect of relationship management on project performance in

construction.International journal of project management, 30(2),188-198.

Narayanan, V. K., &ampDeFillippi, R. (2012). The influence of strategic context on project

management systems:a senior management perspective. Project Governance:

GettingInvestments Right, 1.

Talapin, D. V.(2008). LEGO materials. ACS nano, 2(6), 1097-1100.

Teller, J., Kock,A., &amp Gemünden, H. G. (2014). Risk management in projectportfolios is

more than managingproject risks: a contingency perspective on risk management.

ProjectManagement Journal, 45(4), 67-80.

Teller, J., Kock,A., &amp Gemünden, H. G. (2014). Risk management in projectportfolios is

more than managingproject risks: a contingency perspective on risk management.

ProjectManagement Journal, 45(4), 67-80.

Turner, J. R.(2014). The handbook of project-based management (Vol. 92).McGraw-hill.

Lego in London Ontario

Legoin London Ontario

Lego Company engages in various activities ranging from the sale ofcommodities. They sell men’s, women’s and children’s waresamong other spots commodities (Talapin, 2008). The company has mostof its operations based in London. However, there is a need for thecompany to explore the probability of venturing in other markets.

Objective

The project plan is aimed at providing a guideline with which theorganization can venture into other untapped markets. The decision toventure into Ontario market will increase the organization’scapability of enhancing their sales. The company can decide to supplyboth men’s and women’s clothes in addition to the children’swears. The project plan aims at determining how the company canventure into the market and exploit the opportunities available inOntario.

Research question

What are the benefits that would accrue to Lego upon diversifyingactivities in the Ontario.

Research tasks to be completed

  • Understand legal framework about labor laws

  • Identify competitors of the company

  • Identity professionals to carry out feasibility studies

  • Identify distribution channel

  • Identify competitors

ProposedTimeline

The project should take a period of six months. Considering thedynamic nature of the new markets, it could be mandatory to takeenough time to understand how the market operates. Six months isenough to carry out all of the activities.

Annotated Bibliography

Beringer, C.,Jonas, D., &amp Kock, A. (2013). Behavior of internal stakeholdersin project

Portfoliomanagement and its impact on success. International Journalof Project

Management,31(6), 830-846.

The article examines stakeholder’s duty to the management of theproject. Stakeholders play a role when it comes to ensuring thesuccess of the project. The article is of significance to thediscussion since it points out the role of stakeholders in ensuringthe success of the project.

Chan, A. P.,Scott, D., &amp Lam, E. W. (2002). Framework of success criteria fordesign/build

projects.Journal of Management in Engineering, 18(3),120-128.

The paper explores factors to be considered to achieve success for aparticular project. It explains the approach that can be used as ameasure of determining whether a particular project has been asuccess or not.

Gichoya, D.(2005). Factors affecting the successful implementation of ICTprojects in government. The Electronic Journal ofe-government, 3(4), 175-184.

The paper identifies factors required to achieve success regardingthe implementation of project management in a particular government.

Gido, J., &ampClements, J. (2014). Successful project management.Cengage Learning.

It highlights different attributes related to a project. Further,there is the aspect of the role stakeholders have in ensuring thesuccess of the project, and some of the constraints have also beendiscussed. It is helpful because of the different dimensions ofproject management that it does bring.

Hubbard, D. G., &ampBolles, D. (2012, August). Executive PMO–Blending Project

Management andBusiness Management. Project Management Institute.

The article examines need to have a clear strategy to assist variousenterprises to execute efficiently a project plan. It shows theefforts that have been made by the enterprises to help in improvementof project execution. The article is helpful as it provides anunderstanding of the project management plan but at the enterprise’sperspective.

Kerzner, H. R.(2013). Project management: a systems approach to planning,scheduling, and

controlling.John Wiley &amp Sons.

The paper addresses the contemporary issues related to projectmanagement. Particularly there is the concept of adoption of theproject management methodology and its use in a consistent manner toachieve the results. The book will be helpful in drafting the factorsneeded for the success of the project.

Muriithi, N., &amp Crawford, L. (2003). Approaches to projectmanagement

Implications forinternational development projects. International Journalof Project

Management,21(5), 309-319.

It elaborates the possibility and the relevance of using projectmanagement approaches, techniques, and tools identifies how to copewith the political and the demands of other regions on the project’sresources.

Narayanan, V. K.,&amp DeFillippi, R. (2012). The influence of strategic context onproject

managementsystems: a senior management perspective. ProjectGovernance:

GettingInvestments Right, 1.

The article looks at the role of the management regarding the successof a particular project. It identifies that the execution and successof the project are dependent upon the role the senior management doesin keeping the project on track to realize success. It helps since itgoes out of hand in focusing on the project team to other members notgiven much attention when it comes to project management.

Ochieng, E. G., &ampPrice, A. D. F. (2010). Managing cross-cultural communication in

multiculturalconstruction project teams: The case of Kenya and UK. International

Journal ofProject Management, 28(5), 449-460.

The paper seeks to have an understanding of the effect ofmulticulturalism and the challenges that it would bring to theexecution of the project. The same is helpful in understandingmarkets and its dynamics.

Teller, J., Kock,A., &amp Gemünden, H. G. (2014). Risk management in projectportfolios is

more thanmanaging project risks: a contingency perspective on risk management.

ProjectManagement Journal, 45(4), 67-80.

The article looks at the possible risks that are associated withfailure of the project. It further tries to point out the measuresthat can be taken to help avoid the risk of a project failing bygiving insights into the identification of the risks and how toaddress them. The article will be helpful because of the conceptsthat it presents as regards the issue of project risks.

Turner, J. R.(2014). The handbook of project-based management(Vol. 92). McGraw-hill.

The book looks at the measures that can be used to ensure the successof a particular project in question. It gives the strategies that theproject team can use as a way of ensuring they achieve the results ofthe project. It is a sound source to be used because of the wealth ofknowledge that it provides when it comes to various aspects ofproject management.

Relevant industry association

There are different industries that the company belongs to notablyBritish Interiors &amp Textiles Association interiortextiles.co.ukand Association of Suppliers to the British Clothing Industry withtheir website being www.asbci.co.uk. Both of the associations relate to Lego since they deal in the sameline.

References

Beringer, C., Jonas,D., &amp Kock, A. (2013). Behavior of internal stakeholders inproject

portfoliomanagement and its impact on success. International Journal ofProject

Management,31(6), 830-846.

Burke, R. (2013).Project management: planning and control techniques. NewJersey, USA.

Gido, J., &ampClements, J. (2014). Successful project management. CengageLearning.

Heagney, J. (2012).Fundamentals of project management. AMACOM Div American Mgmt

Assn.

Hubbard, D. G., &ampBolles, D. (2012, August). Executive PMO–Blending Project

Management andBusiness Management. Project Management Institute.

Kerzner, H. R.(2013). Project management: a systems approach to planning,scheduling, and

controlling.John Wiley &amp Sons.

Meng, X. (2012). Theeffect of relationship management on project performance in

construction.International journal of project management, 30(2),188-198.

Narayanan, V. K., &ampDeFillippi, R. (2012). The influence of strategic context on project

management systems:a senior management perspective. Project Governance:

GettingInvestments Right, 1.

Talapin, D. V.(2008). LEGO materials. ACS nano, 2(6), 1097-1100.

Teller, J., Kock,A., &amp Gemünden, H. G. (2014). Risk management in projectportfolios is

more than managingproject risks: a contingency perspective on risk management.

ProjectManagement Journal, 45(4), 67-80.

Teller, J., Kock,A., &amp Gemünden, H. G. (2014). Risk management in projectportfolios is

more than managingproject risks: a contingency perspective on risk management.

ProjectManagement Journal, 45(4), 67-80.

Turner, J. R.(2014). The handbook of project-based management (Vol. 92).McGraw-hill.

The Worst Moments in our Lives makes us who we are

To begin with, the worst moments in our lives makes us who we are.First, the worst situations that people encounter assist them todetach emotionally from them and deals with the anxiety. As Solomonput is in his article, How Worst the Moments in Our Lives Makes UsWho We Are, difficult situations push people towards the end of theiremotional capability. Interestingly, we adapt to the situations asthey come (Solomon). For example, Solomon learned to adapt to thebullying he faced in school as well as the death of his mother tobecome an accomplished author. The adversity and injustices thatpeople face strengthen individual rather than break them.

Secondly, the worst situations that people face assists them inidentifying themselves in the wake of painful experiences rather thankeeping on asking themselves why such situations could befall them.Solomon notes that there is a reason for everything that happens inpeoples` lives. Pondering over a situation for long can only woundone`s psyche (Solomon). For example, When Solomon visited politicalprisoners, he advised them not to ponder over the trauma that theywere facing because it was not without reason. If people allowallowing trauma and frustration to dominate their thoughts, they caneasily deviate from their goals in life.

Lastly, the challenging situations do not last for long. Theassurance should give people courage to walk through the turbulenttimes. Solomon agrees that he moved from one stage to another, andeach of the situations strengthened him. For example, the bullying hefaced in school did not last for long (Solomon). Also, he coped withhis mother’s suicide, and he did not let the situations ruin hislife.

In conclusion, there is no reason, for giving up because there wouldbe no learning in life if people did not experience challengingsituations. People should positively perceive the worst conditions asbuilding blocks that will define their lives.

Works Cited

Solomon, Andrew.&quotHow the Worst Moments in our Lives make us who we are.&quotTED Talks, 2014. Web.

The Worst Moments in our Lives makes us who we are

To begin with, the worst moments in our lives makes us who we are.First, the worst situations that people encounter assist them todetach emotionally from them and deals with the anxiety. As Solomonput is in his article, How Worst the Moments in Our Lives Makes UsWho We Are, difficult situations push people towards the end of theiremotional capability. Interestingly, we adapt to the situations asthey come (Solomon). For example, Solomon learned to adapt to thebullying he faced in school as well as the death of his mother tobecome an accomplished author. The adversity and injustices thatpeople face strengthen individual rather than break them.

Secondly, the worst situations that people face assists them inidentifying themselves in the wake of painful experiences rather thankeeping on asking themselves why such situations could befall them.Solomon notes that there is a reason for everything that happens inpeoples` lives. Pondering over a situation for long can only woundone`s psyche (Solomon). For example, When Solomon visited politicalprisoners, he advised them not to ponder over the trauma that theywere facing because it was not without reason. If people allowallowing trauma and frustration to dominate their thoughts, they caneasily deviate from their goals in life.

Lastly, the challenging situations do not last for long. Theassurance should give people courage to walk through the turbulenttimes. Solomon agrees that he moved from one stage to another, andeach of the situations strengthened him. For example, the bullying hefaced in school did not last for long (Solomon). Also, he coped withhis mother’s suicide, and he did not let the situations ruin hislife.

In conclusion, there is no reason, for giving up because there wouldbe no learning in life if people did not experience challengingsituations. People should positively perceive the worst conditions asbuilding blocks that will define their lives.

Works Cited

Solomon, Andrew.&quotHow the Worst Moments in our Lives make us who we are.&quotTED Talks, 2014. Web.

Article Critique

ARTICLE CRITIQUE

University of Affiliation

Leadership is neither legacy attained from the family nor a genericgift. It is an intentional growth process whereby one has to live outexperientially. Leaders must be ready and willing to their character,values and leadership styles. Ethics is core to leadership, alsoconsidered to be the heart of leadership. Comprehension of ethicsstarts with individuals’ analysis of values. Eisenbeiss (2012)defined ethics as the act of doing what is right or wrong. Effectiveleaders ought to be aware of their morals, values, ethicaldecision-making and system of ethics within an organization.Different people have varying perceptions on teaching ethics andleadership in different institutions (Kacmar et al., 2013). In thispaper, the author seeks to evaluate and criticize AlSagheer andAlSagheer’s (2011) article where they aimed at understanding theperceptions of the faculty in teaching ethics and leadership inengineering education in the University of Kuwait.

Critique

The topic of research was relevant to its intent as the researchersfocused on the University students both male and female who werealready doing the engineering course. This research did not have atest of hypothesis. Hypothesis is a part of research as it isimportant in transforming the research questions into propositionsthat can be tested (Barr, Levy, Scheepers &amp Tily, 2013). Itensures that a research is focused on a particular conclusion.However, the research outlines research questions as follows:

  1. What is the current perception of faculty toward engineering ethics?

  2. What are the preferred methods of teaching engineering ethics to students?

  3. What benefits do faculty members see to a focus on engineering ethics?

Researchquestions are as important as hypothesis testing in research (Ritchieet al., 2013). They provide the foundations of the needed types ofdata towards the achievement of the intended purpose of the study.

Research methodology is a step a by step procedure in which a givenstudy is conducted. AlSagheer and AlSagheer. (2011) used a surveymethod where they employed the interview as the data collection tool.Survey methodology involves the sampling of participants from aparticular population. According to Creswell (2013), Survey study isusually based on the population sample and therefore research’success is determined by the sample representatives’ outcome withrespect to the researcher’s interest. Wellington (2015)disqualifies the use of survey method in any research because of themany survey errors associated with the methodology. He argues thatthe survey errors arising from the method connects with survey costwhich leads to research quality deterioration due to the costconstraints achieved. Therefore, borrowing from Wellington’s (2015)idea, the author suggests that the use of this method was notappropriate as it could easily outweigh the budget put in place forthe entire research and therefore could lead to inefficiencies in theprocess of the study.

The method and tools of data collection used in every researchdetermine the efficiency of the results achieved at the end of thestudy. Inaccurate collection of data affects the research results andconsequently leads to invalid study results. In their research,AlSagheer and AlSagheer. (2011) used interviews as the datacollection tool. They interviewed a group of students from theUniversity of Kuwait. The participants were engaged in asemi-structured interview as the topics of discussion were alreadyset in advance. Semi-structured interviews limit the interviewee fromdiscussing any other topic outside the already prepared topics(Englander, 2012). This was a brilliant idea for the researchers asthey could engage in only the topics that contributed towardsachieving the goals and objectives of the research Irvine,Drew and Sainsbury, 2013 advise that semi-structured face-faceinterview allow for coordination in the interview room ensuring thatthe time horizon for the session is met. Importantly, it is importantto focus on topics that accurately contribute to valid results of thestudy.

Conducting interviews during research allows physical interactionbetween the interviewer and the interviewee. This allows theinterviewer to inspect the interviewee’s attitudes, feelings andany other physical gestures in the course of the interview whichcommunicate a lot to the interviewer (Wellington, 2015). Theinterviewee’s attitude and physical gestures is essential as theycan help the individual give a broad explanation of the topic ofdiscussion providing more details and understanding of the same (Kyteet al., 2013). In AlSagheer and AlSagheer. (2011) research, theinterviews were conducted in the seminar rooms and conference rooms.One demerit of interviews is that can be easily interrupted by boththe internal and external environment hence affecting the entirestudy results. With this in mind, the researchers ensured nointerruptions either from internal or external aspects could ariseduring the interview and for this reason the researchers soughtpermission to conduct the interviews after the university’sofficial regular hours.

The study involved a single group of students from the faculty ofengineering who were randomly selected from the different engineeringdepartments in the University of Kuwait. Simple random sampling wasdone based on the students’ experience and knowledge with the givensubject. Barr et al. (2013) state that simple random sampling isamong the surveying techniques where a sample of individuals ischosen from a given population of individuals and each individual inthe sample has the same probability of selection. The researchersconsider this method advantageous as there is assurance of unbiasnessin the sample selection. In agreement with the researchers, randomsampling is an effective technique as it provides a room for easyassembling and generalization of results. However, Kogan and Herzog (2012) identify some limitations associated with random samplingtechnique among them being the amount of time needed to get therequire list of participant from the target population, capital costsneeded for the list retrieval and contact and the bias that mightoccur in case the population is not large enough for the fullpopulation retrieval. However, in this research, the targetpopulation was large enough biasness was least expected.

Given that skills on ethics and leadership are essential toengineering and a core subject of engineering, the researchers wereinterested in getting the insights from several students in differentfaculty areas including communication studies, religious studies andengineering subjects. The researchers selected eight members from thefaculties for the interview. Although the random approach used inselecting these participants is assumed to be an unbiased surveytechnique approach, when subset of the sample is not inclusive enoughespecially in a larger target population, full populationrepresentation needs to be taken care of to achieve the set goals andobjectives of the study (Kogan &amp Herzog, 2012). The author feelsthat this representation sample was insignificant given thepopulation of students in the faculties in the University of Kuwaittherefore there is a high probability of biased selection for theparticipants. According to Ritchie et al. (2013) biasness inparticipants’ selection will always result to biased results of thestudy. Therefore, generalization of results in this case would beinappropriate since the target population is not significantlypresented.

Time horizon is vital in every session of the research and to thestudy as a whole. It is important to allocate specific period toevery participant of the interview. Research shows that most of theinterviewers prefer short time with their interviewers as most ofthem are unaware of what they expect prior to the interview session(Bell, 2014). However, on getting to the interview room, their moodand attitude is dependent on how lively and interesting theirinterviewers are regardless of the nature of the questions or topicsof discussion. In this research, every participants was allocated 90minutes, whereby in three cases, there was time extension to 120minutes. The author feels that the time slot allocated is convenientenough to provide efficient discussions of the topics prepared by theresearchers. However, extension of time in some cases shows lack ofseriousness in what they were doing. A mindset is a situation thatcan be hard convincing otherwise (Englander, 2012). Remember thateach participant knows the timeslot allocated to each individual thuscreating a mindset of the same. This may result to confusion eitherto the participant in room or to the participant in waiting which caneasily lead to alteration of the expected results. Therefore, astrict time slot allocation is a must.

Testing of the reliability and validity of the data collected iscrucial to any study. During the interview, the researchers’recorded their conversations with the participants after seekingpermission from them. After the interview, pilot testing wasconducted on two participants after which they wrote a summary ofcomprehensive ideas obtained from the participants. Pilot study isassumed to give best results if the people used are not part of theactual experiment to ensure minimal order effects (Philliphs et al.,2015). Minimal order effects in the participants help in increasingthe validity and reliability of the results ( Eisenbeiss, 2012). With the author’s idea, use of the same participants involved inthe interview could decrease the validity and reliability of theresult provided that the researchers did not change their studylayout.

Data analysis is another vital step in research. The data analysistool used determines the effectiveness of the results obtained in theresearch. AlSagheer and AlSagheer. (2011) used the QDA software toanalyze the data they collected during the interviews. They came upwith developed codes and wrote memos pertaining the codes after whichthey conducted the analysis of frequency of codes. With theincreasingly advancing technology, use of QDA software in dataanalysis has a major impact on any study. The software allows quickmanipulation of data as the researcher can electronically code textbased data (Gilbert, Jackson &amp di Gregorio, 2014). It also helpsthe researcher to look at the data in an analytical manner thusincreasing its accessibility. The speed of the study is increased bythe use of QDA software allowing for an improved study’s thoroughexamination. This was an appropriate data analysis tool for theresearch.

The researchers found varying perception from participants on ethicsand leadership training in engineering education. They senseddifferentiated knowledge levels of different members of the facultyon ethics and leadership in engineering. The researchers fail toinform whether there were participants who did not complete allelements of data collection neither do they give the number ofindividuals who completed the whole process. The generalization offinings in such cases is assumed to create a gap in the eligibilityof the results obtained (Wellington, 2015). The findings indicatedthat several participants recommended some slight changes in theengineering curriculum for ethics and leadership. Others informedthat teaching of ethics and leadership provides amoral impact to thestudents in the faculty of engineering.

Conclusion

Overall, the research methodology adopted here was effective andrigorous, thereby yielding valid and reliable findings. The studentsof University of Kuwait had varying perceptions on trainingengineering students on ethics and leadership. They used surveymethodology whereby they used interview as the data collection tool.They used semi-structured interview technique as the discussionquestions had been prepared in advance. They used a diversificationapproach as a way of bias elimination especially based on gender. Theresearchers used simple random sampling where they selected eightparticipants from different faculties for the interview. Time horizonwas taken care of in the interview session whereby each participantwas allocated a time slot of 90 minutes and extension of time wasexperienced in three cases. Pilot testing was conducted on twoparticipants to determine the reliability and validity of the datacollected. Analysis of data was done using QDA software in which thefrequency of codes was analyzed. The analytical analysis of dataallowed for a thorough examination of the research. The findings wererecorded whereby the participants showed varying knowledge levelsabout engineering ethics and leadership.

References

AlSagheer, A., &amp Al-Sagheer, A. (2011). Faculty’s PerceptionsOf Teaching Ethics And Leadership In Engineering Education. Journalof International Education Research (JIER), 7(2), 55-66.

Barr, D. J., Levy, R., Scheepers, C., &amp Tily, H. J. (2013).Random effects structure for confirmatory hypothesis testing: Keep itmaximal. Journal of memory and language, 68(3),255-278.

Bell, J. (2014). Doing Your Research Project: A guide forfirst-time researchers. London: McGraw-Hill Education (UK).

Creswell, J. W. (2013). Research design: Qualitative,quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. London: Sagepublications.

Eisenbeiss, S. A. (2012). Re-thinking ethical leadership: Aninterdisciplinary integrative approach. The Leadership Quarterly,23(5), 791-808.

Englander, M. (2012). The interview: Data collection in descriptivephenomenological human scientific research*. Journal ofPhenomenological Psychology, 43(1), 13-35.

Gilbert, L. S., Jackson, K., &amp di Gregorio, S. (2014). Tools foranalyzing qualitative data: The history and relevance of qualitativedata analysis software. In Handbook of research on educationalcommunications and technology (pp. 221-236). New York: SpringerNew York.

Irvine, A., Drew, P., &amp Sainsbury, R. (2013). ‘Am I notanswering your questions properly?’Clarification, adequacy andresponsiveness in semi-structured telephone and face-to-faceinterviews. Qualitative Research, 13(1), 87-106.

Kacmar, K. M., Andrews, M. C., Harris, K. J., &amp Tepper, B. J.(2013). Ethical leadership and subordinate outcomes: The mediatingrole of organizational politics and the moderating role of politicalskill. Journal of business ethics, 115(1), 33-44.

Kyte, D., Ives, J., Draper, H., Keeley, T., &amp Calvert, M. (2013).Inconsistencies in quality of life data collection in clinicaltrials: a potential source of bias? Interviews with research nursesand trialists. PloS one, 8(10), e76625.

Kogan, M., &amp Herzog, D. C. (Eds.). (2012). Sampling methods insoybean entomology. New York: Springer Science &amp BusinessMedia.

Phillips, A., Lewis, L. K., McEvoy, M. P., Galipeau, J., Glasziou,P., Moher, D., … &amp Williams, M. T. (2015). Pilot testing of theguideline for reporting of evidence-based practice educationalinterventions and teaching (greet). Physiotherapy, 101,e1203-e1204.

Ritchie, J., Lewis, J., Nicholls, C. M., &amp Ormston, R. (Eds.).(2013). Qualitative research practice: A guide for social sciencestudents and researchers. London: Sage.

Wellington, J. (2015). Educational research: Contemporary issuesand practical approaches. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.

Article Critique

ARTICLE CRITIQUE

University of Affiliation

Leadership is neither legacy attained from the family nor a genericgift. It is an intentional growth process whereby one has to live outexperientially. Leaders must be ready and willing to their character,values and leadership styles. Ethics is core to leadership, alsoconsidered to be the heart of leadership. Comprehension of ethicsstarts with individuals’ analysis of values. Eisenbeiss (2012)defined ethics as the act of doing what is right or wrong. Effectiveleaders ought to be aware of their morals, values, ethicaldecision-making and system of ethics within an organization.Different people have varying perceptions on teaching ethics andleadership in different institutions (Kacmar et al., 2013). In thispaper, the author seeks to evaluate and criticize AlSagheer andAlSagheer’s (2011) article where they aimed at understanding theperceptions of the faculty in teaching ethics and leadership inengineering education in the University of Kuwait.

Critique

The topic of research was relevant to its intent as the researchersfocused on the University students both male and female who werealready doing the engineering course. This research did not have atest of hypothesis. Hypothesis is a part of research as it isimportant in transforming the research questions into propositionsthat can be tested (Barr, Levy, Scheepers &amp Tily, 2013). Itensures that a research is focused on a particular conclusion.However, the research outlines research questions as follows:

  1. What is the current perception of faculty toward engineering ethics?

  2. What are the preferred methods of teaching engineering ethics to students?

  3. What benefits do faculty members see to a focus on engineering ethics?

Researchquestions are as important as hypothesis testing in research (Ritchieet al., 2013). They provide the foundations of the needed types ofdata towards the achievement of the intended purpose of the study.

Research methodology is a step a by step procedure in which a givenstudy is conducted. AlSagheer and AlSagheer. (2011) used a surveymethod where they employed the interview as the data collection tool.Survey methodology involves the sampling of participants from aparticular population. According to Creswell (2013), Survey study isusually based on the population sample and therefore research’success is determined by the sample representatives’ outcome withrespect to the researcher’s interest. Wellington (2015)disqualifies the use of survey method in any research because of themany survey errors associated with the methodology. He argues thatthe survey errors arising from the method connects with survey costwhich leads to research quality deterioration due to the costconstraints achieved. Therefore, borrowing from Wellington’s (2015)idea, the author suggests that the use of this method was notappropriate as it could easily outweigh the budget put in place forthe entire research and therefore could lead to inefficiencies in theprocess of the study.

The method and tools of data collection used in every researchdetermine the efficiency of the results achieved at the end of thestudy. Inaccurate collection of data affects the research results andconsequently leads to invalid study results. In their research,AlSagheer and AlSagheer. (2011) used interviews as the datacollection tool. They interviewed a group of students from theUniversity of Kuwait. The participants were engaged in asemi-structured interview as the topics of discussion were alreadyset in advance. Semi-structured interviews limit the interviewee fromdiscussing any other topic outside the already prepared topics(Englander, 2012). This was a brilliant idea for the researchers asthey could engage in only the topics that contributed towardsachieving the goals and objectives of the research Irvine,Drew and Sainsbury, 2013 advise that semi-structured face-faceinterview allow for coordination in the interview room ensuring thatthe time horizon for the session is met. Importantly, it is importantto focus on topics that accurately contribute to valid results of thestudy.

Conducting interviews during research allows physical interactionbetween the interviewer and the interviewee. This allows theinterviewer to inspect the interviewee’s attitudes, feelings andany other physical gestures in the course of the interview whichcommunicate a lot to the interviewer (Wellington, 2015). Theinterviewee’s attitude and physical gestures is essential as theycan help the individual give a broad explanation of the topic ofdiscussion providing more details and understanding of the same (Kyteet al., 2013). In AlSagheer and AlSagheer. (2011) research, theinterviews were conducted in the seminar rooms and conference rooms.One demerit of interviews is that can be easily interrupted by boththe internal and external environment hence affecting the entirestudy results. With this in mind, the researchers ensured nointerruptions either from internal or external aspects could ariseduring the interview and for this reason the researchers soughtpermission to conduct the interviews after the university’sofficial regular hours.

The study involved a single group of students from the faculty ofengineering who were randomly selected from the different engineeringdepartments in the University of Kuwait. Simple random sampling wasdone based on the students’ experience and knowledge with the givensubject. Barr et al. (2013) state that simple random sampling isamong the surveying techniques where a sample of individuals ischosen from a given population of individuals and each individual inthe sample has the same probability of selection. The researchersconsider this method advantageous as there is assurance of unbiasnessin the sample selection. In agreement with the researchers, randomsampling is an effective technique as it provides a room for easyassembling and generalization of results. However, Kogan and Herzog (2012) identify some limitations associated with random samplingtechnique among them being the amount of time needed to get therequire list of participant from the target population, capital costsneeded for the list retrieval and contact and the bias that mightoccur in case the population is not large enough for the fullpopulation retrieval. However, in this research, the targetpopulation was large enough biasness was least expected.

Given that skills on ethics and leadership are essential toengineering and a core subject of engineering, the researchers wereinterested in getting the insights from several students in differentfaculty areas including communication studies, religious studies andengineering subjects. The researchers selected eight members from thefaculties for the interview. Although the random approach used inselecting these participants is assumed to be an unbiased surveytechnique approach, when subset of the sample is not inclusive enoughespecially in a larger target population, full populationrepresentation needs to be taken care of to achieve the set goals andobjectives of the study (Kogan &amp Herzog, 2012). The author feelsthat this representation sample was insignificant given thepopulation of students in the faculties in the University of Kuwaittherefore there is a high probability of biased selection for theparticipants. According to Ritchie et al. (2013) biasness inparticipants’ selection will always result to biased results of thestudy. Therefore, generalization of results in this case would beinappropriate since the target population is not significantlypresented.

Time horizon is vital in every session of the research and to thestudy as a whole. It is important to allocate specific period toevery participant of the interview. Research shows that most of theinterviewers prefer short time with their interviewers as most ofthem are unaware of what they expect prior to the interview session(Bell, 2014). However, on getting to the interview room, their moodand attitude is dependent on how lively and interesting theirinterviewers are regardless of the nature of the questions or topicsof discussion. In this research, every participants was allocated 90minutes, whereby in three cases, there was time extension to 120minutes. The author feels that the time slot allocated is convenientenough to provide efficient discussions of the topics prepared by theresearchers. However, extension of time in some cases shows lack ofseriousness in what they were doing. A mindset is a situation thatcan be hard convincing otherwise (Englander, 2012). Remember thateach participant knows the timeslot allocated to each individual thuscreating a mindset of the same. This may result to confusion eitherto the participant in room or to the participant in waiting which caneasily lead to alteration of the expected results. Therefore, astrict time slot allocation is a must.

Testing of the reliability and validity of the data collected iscrucial to any study. During the interview, the researchers’recorded their conversations with the participants after seekingpermission from them. After the interview, pilot testing wasconducted on two participants after which they wrote a summary ofcomprehensive ideas obtained from the participants. Pilot study isassumed to give best results if the people used are not part of theactual experiment to ensure minimal order effects (Philliphs et al.,2015). Minimal order effects in the participants help in increasingthe validity and reliability of the results ( Eisenbeiss, 2012). With the author’s idea, use of the same participants involved inthe interview could decrease the validity and reliability of theresult provided that the researchers did not change their studylayout.

Data analysis is another vital step in research. The data analysistool used determines the effectiveness of the results obtained in theresearch. AlSagheer and AlSagheer. (2011) used the QDA software toanalyze the data they collected during the interviews. They came upwith developed codes and wrote memos pertaining the codes after whichthey conducted the analysis of frequency of codes. With theincreasingly advancing technology, use of QDA software in dataanalysis has a major impact on any study. The software allows quickmanipulation of data as the researcher can electronically code textbased data (Gilbert, Jackson &amp di Gregorio, 2014). It also helpsthe researcher to look at the data in an analytical manner thusincreasing its accessibility. The speed of the study is increased bythe use of QDA software allowing for an improved study’s thoroughexamination. This was an appropriate data analysis tool for theresearch.

The researchers found varying perception from participants on ethicsand leadership training in engineering education. They senseddifferentiated knowledge levels of different members of the facultyon ethics and leadership in engineering. The researchers fail toinform whether there were participants who did not complete allelements of data collection neither do they give the number ofindividuals who completed the whole process. The generalization offinings in such cases is assumed to create a gap in the eligibilityof the results obtained (Wellington, 2015). The findings indicatedthat several participants recommended some slight changes in theengineering curriculum for ethics and leadership. Others informedthat teaching of ethics and leadership provides amoral impact to thestudents in the faculty of engineering.

Conclusion

Overall, the research methodology adopted here was effective andrigorous, thereby yielding valid and reliable findings. The studentsof University of Kuwait had varying perceptions on trainingengineering students on ethics and leadership. They used surveymethodology whereby they used interview as the data collection tool.They used semi-structured interview technique as the discussionquestions had been prepared in advance. They used a diversificationapproach as a way of bias elimination especially based on gender. Theresearchers used simple random sampling where they selected eightparticipants from different faculties for the interview. Time horizonwas taken care of in the interview session whereby each participantwas allocated a time slot of 90 minutes and extension of time wasexperienced in three cases. Pilot testing was conducted on twoparticipants to determine the reliability and validity of the datacollected. Analysis of data was done using QDA software in which thefrequency of codes was analyzed. The analytical analysis of dataallowed for a thorough examination of the research. The findings wererecorded whereby the participants showed varying knowledge levelsabout engineering ethics and leadership.

References

AlSagheer, A., &amp Al-Sagheer, A. (2011). Faculty’s PerceptionsOf Teaching Ethics And Leadership In Engineering Education. Journalof International Education Research (JIER), 7(2), 55-66.

Barr, D. J., Levy, R., Scheepers, C., &amp Tily, H. J. (2013).Random effects structure for confirmatory hypothesis testing: Keep itmaximal. Journal of memory and language, 68(3),255-278.

Bell, J. (2014). Doing Your Research Project: A guide forfirst-time researchers. London: McGraw-Hill Education (UK).

Creswell, J. W. (2013). Research design: Qualitative,quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. London: Sagepublications.

Eisenbeiss, S. A. (2012). Re-thinking ethical leadership: Aninterdisciplinary integrative approach. The Leadership Quarterly,23(5), 791-808.

Englander, M. (2012). The interview: Data collection in descriptivephenomenological human scientific research*. Journal ofPhenomenological Psychology, 43(1), 13-35.

Gilbert, L. S., Jackson, K., &amp di Gregorio, S. (2014). Tools foranalyzing qualitative data: The history and relevance of qualitativedata analysis software. In Handbook of research on educationalcommunications and technology (pp. 221-236). New York: SpringerNew York.

Irvine, A., Drew, P., &amp Sainsbury, R. (2013). ‘Am I notanswering your questions properly?’Clarification, adequacy andresponsiveness in semi-structured telephone and face-to-faceinterviews. Qualitative Research, 13(1), 87-106.

Kacmar, K. M., Andrews, M. C., Harris, K. J., &amp Tepper, B. J.(2013). Ethical leadership and subordinate outcomes: The mediatingrole of organizational politics and the moderating role of politicalskill. Journal of business ethics, 115(1), 33-44.

Kyte, D., Ives, J., Draper, H., Keeley, T., &amp Calvert, M. (2013).Inconsistencies in quality of life data collection in clinicaltrials: a potential source of bias? Interviews with research nursesand trialists. PloS one, 8(10), e76625.

Kogan, M., &amp Herzog, D. C. (Eds.). (2012). Sampling methods insoybean entomology. New York: Springer Science &amp BusinessMedia.

Phillips, A., Lewis, L. K., McEvoy, M. P., Galipeau, J., Glasziou,P., Moher, D., … &amp Williams, M. T. (2015). Pilot testing of theguideline for reporting of evidence-based practice educationalinterventions and teaching (greet). Physiotherapy, 101,e1203-e1204.

Ritchie, J., Lewis, J., Nicholls, C. M., &amp Ormston, R. (Eds.).(2013). Qualitative research practice: A guide for social sciencestudents and researchers. London: Sage.

Wellington, J. (2015). Educational research: Contemporary issuesand practical approaches. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.

Summary and Reflection on Adrian Piper’s Arguments

SUMMARY AND REFLECTION ON ADRIAN PIPER’S ARGUMENTS 4

and Reflection on Adrian Piper’s Arguments

Institutionaffiliation

and Reflection on Adrian Piper’s Arguments

Pipertogether with other female artists has played a big role in puttingvigil on the plight of female artists. They have brought up the issueof the need of education as an important step in ensuring that femaleartists are empowered (Amelia, 2003). I believe this was a reasonableand an important step in ensuring that more and more female artistsare nurtured and brought to light. Piper mentions particularly thewestern cultures that have discriminated women in the arts industrydue to societal or cultural setting and others based on race.

Ibelieve with the women`s empowerment programs that have enabled themodern woman to claim a respectable position modern female artistshave a chance of exploring a place in the art industry (Amelia,2003). However, as Piper points out, there is a great need forschools to provide enough information on the history of the femaleartists who have made a mark in history. This explains the reasonswhy there is a sharp decline of female arts students in school.

Inaddition, Piper observes the unequal representation of women in thearts society itself. The unequal positions that women were given inthe society is reflected in the arts societies. She mentions thehigher educational centers such as the museums or art galleries thathave less or none female arts (Amelia, 2003). I believe that thisissue that is raised is outright as it only reflects a history ofdiscrimination of female artists based on race or nationality. Thisis ironical because such institutions are regarded in the highestesteem by the society. They should be the institutions that shouldpractice what is morally right and which is found the famous artworkof female artists and offer education to the generations to come.

Historically,less female art was collected and preserved for the reasons that theywere undervalued and consequently their work had no value. This was aperiod of harsh discrimination to female artists who were regardedless because of issues such as race. And as a consequence, they weregiven unequal positions in the arts society (Amelia, 2003).

Theissue of historians in recording and publishing books on artists overthe decade has also been seen as discriminatory by Piper. She pointsout some book covers with racist terms such as “White male artsover the decade”. This is clearly discrimination of race and genderthat put off female artists out of history never to be remembered. Ibelieve this was a crude way of treating deserving and honest peoplewho clearly had talent in the society. In fact, it was a way ofrobbing them their talent as art is meant to be studied for manydecades to come from many generations to come.

Therefore,I believe there is a great need for historians to delve further intoart history and highlight the forgotten female artists who had a hugecontribution in the world of arts. This would be a great way ofhealing and mending the crimes that were committed in the era ofdiscrimination. Moreover the introduction of technology that involvedmany artistry performances, particularly of digital performancesbrought about discrimination of women (Amelia, 2003). Women weregiven minor roles or roles that were too degrading. Many artists whowere mainly of color were discriminated against and in many casesdenied opportunities in that industry (Amelia, 2003). However, it isimportant to note that such kinds of discriminations against womenvaried from countries to countries.

References

AmeliaJones. (2003). TheFeminists and the Visual Culture Reader.New York. Routledge Publishers.

Summary and Reflection on Adrian Piper’s Arguments

SUMMARY AND REFLECTION ON ADRIAN PIPER’S ARGUMENTS 4

and Reflection on Adrian Piper’s Arguments

Institutionaffiliation

and Reflection on Adrian Piper’s Arguments

Pipertogether with other female artists has played a big role in puttingvigil on the plight of female artists. They have brought up the issueof the need of education as an important step in ensuring that femaleartists are empowered (Amelia, 2003). I believe this was a reasonableand an important step in ensuring that more and more female artistsare nurtured and brought to light. Piper mentions particularly thewestern cultures that have discriminated women in the arts industrydue to societal or cultural setting and others based on race.

Ibelieve with the women`s empowerment programs that have enabled themodern woman to claim a respectable position modern female artistshave a chance of exploring a place in the art industry (Amelia,2003). However, as Piper points out, there is a great need forschools to provide enough information on the history of the femaleartists who have made a mark in history. This explains the reasonswhy there is a sharp decline of female arts students in school.

Inaddition, Piper observes the unequal representation of women in thearts society itself. The unequal positions that women were given inthe society is reflected in the arts societies. She mentions thehigher educational centers such as the museums or art galleries thathave less or none female arts (Amelia, 2003). I believe that thisissue that is raised is outright as it only reflects a history ofdiscrimination of female artists based on race or nationality. Thisis ironical because such institutions are regarded in the highestesteem by the society. They should be the institutions that shouldpractice what is morally right and which is found the famous artworkof female artists and offer education to the generations to come.

Historically,less female art was collected and preserved for the reasons that theywere undervalued and consequently their work had no value. This was aperiod of harsh discrimination to female artists who were regardedless because of issues such as race. And as a consequence, they weregiven unequal positions in the arts society (Amelia, 2003).

Theissue of historians in recording and publishing books on artists overthe decade has also been seen as discriminatory by Piper. She pointsout some book covers with racist terms such as “White male artsover the decade”. This is clearly discrimination of race and genderthat put off female artists out of history never to be remembered. Ibelieve this was a crude way of treating deserving and honest peoplewho clearly had talent in the society. In fact, it was a way ofrobbing them their talent as art is meant to be studied for manydecades to come from many generations to come.

Therefore,I believe there is a great need for historians to delve further intoart history and highlight the forgotten female artists who had a hugecontribution in the world of arts. This would be a great way ofhealing and mending the crimes that were committed in the era ofdiscrimination. Moreover the introduction of technology that involvedmany artistry performances, particularly of digital performancesbrought about discrimination of women (Amelia, 2003). Women weregiven minor roles or roles that were too degrading. Many artists whowere mainly of color were discriminated against and in many casesdenied opportunities in that industry (Amelia, 2003). However, it isimportant to note that such kinds of discriminations against womenvaried from countries to countries.

References

AmeliaJones. (2003). TheFeminists and the Visual Culture Reader.New York. Routledge Publishers.