Ethics in Research


1. There are several principles overlooked in the practice. First,the subjects participated in the research without their consent.Secondly, the patients were exposed to indignity by being exposed toexcessive pain (Washington, 2009). Also, the medics pretended tooffer free medical help to the blacks while in the real sense theywere conducting experiment medical procedures.

2. These could be prevented in several ways. First, the patientscould have been informed of the processes they were to undergothrough and the intention of the medical professionals. Also, themedics could have offered free medical help on a professional levelwithout exposing the patients to unconfirmed medical practices(Washington, 2009). The professionals could also have prevented thepatients from dangerous experiments that did not serve to improvetheir health. For example, Anarcha devised incontinence afterundergoing 30 painful surgeries.teh doctor should not have gone tothat destructive extent.

3. The subjects in the experiments were very vulnerable. Asslaves, they were at the mercy of their masters and they could notmake any decision regarding their health. Also, even after being setfree they could not access quality medical help, and they scrambledfor the free services given by the southern institutions. They wereextremely susceptible to malpractice and exploitation.

4. In the Tuskegee study, the medical practitioners intentionallydecided not to inform the patients of their conditions and it wasunethical. Also, they used attractive terms to recruit participantsknowing very well that the peasants were vulnerable to such offers(Washington, 2009). After the discovery of penicillin, thepractitioners knowingly failed to treat the suffering patients.

5. One o the unethical practice I have encountered during mypractice involves the failure to inform cancer patients of theircondition if the medical professionals do not know the type of cancerthe patent is suffering from (Washington, 2009). I believe that thiscan be quickly filed by informing the patients that the diseases theyare re suffering from are under study and inform them immediatelywhen the results are out.

6. Informed consent ensures that all the participants take part inthe experiment on a voluntary basis. It also gives them a chance topull out when they if they become uncomfortable with the process.Professionals can make sure that participants understand what theyagree to by briefing them about the nature of the research, itsobjectives, and their role in the process as well as any actions thatthe professionals will perform on them and their implications fortheir health or behavior (Green et al., 2006).

7. In research, vulnerable populations are the ones that aresusceptible to influence, coercion or attractive terms intended towoo them into a study. Researchers can protect these groups byavoiding recruiting for study targeting their weak points. Also, theyshould seek their consent before involving them and avoid influencingthem to participate by giving them handouts or other in-kind offers(Green et al., 2006).

8. The institutional review board is an independent ethicscommittee that reviews and approves research involving humansubjects. The board protects human subjects by ensuring that allstudies comply with the federal, institutions and ethical guidelines.

9. As a registered nurse I can protect my subjects by inclining tothe ethical considerations in nursing research. The nursing practiceis very precise on the way that researchers should handleparticipants. During my research, I would also adhere to theregulation of the

10. The researcher is responsible for maintaining ethics whenconducting a study. Although one may involve extra hands in datacollection, transcribing and analysis, the researcher has theresponsibility of ensuring that the helpers observe all the ethicalprocedures. Also, when the IRB gives one the permission to conductresearch, the body assumes that the researcher will adhere to all theguidelines.


Green, L. A.,Lowery, J. C., Kowalski, C. P., &amp Wyszewianski, L. (2006). Impactof institutional review board practice variation on observationalhealth services research. Health services research, 41(1),214-230.

Holloway, I., &ampWheeler, S. (2013). Qualitative research in nursing andhealthcare. John Wiley &amp Sons.

Washington, H. A.(2009). Medical apartheid: The dark history of medicalexperimentation on Black Americans from colonial times to thepresent. International Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies,6(4), 356–360. DOI: 10.1002/aps.223