Mastery Prospectus in HBDI, Neuro-Leadership, and Behavioral Interviewing

MasteryProspectus in HBDI, Neuro-Leadership, and Behavioral Interviewing

ExecutiveSummary

Thisproject focuses on how an organization can secure its future throughstrategic ways of recruiting employees and promoting existing ones.Companies that are currently registering the best performance needsstrategic recruitment and promotion procedures so that they continuethriving. The marketplace in different industries has changed andorganizations need to continuously embrace change. The first type ofchange that happens every day in organizations is employees leavingthe organizations for other companies or personal businesses. Othersleave the organization for wrong reasons such as dismissal. Thecaveat to such dynamics is that Companies end up losing strategicemployees who could be critical to the organizational successionplans. Employees with a clear grasp of an organization’s cultureare the ones that are better placed to lead it through differenttransitions or milestones. In the context of a successful companiessuch as Apple Corporation, this project intends to explain how modelsin business psychology can be applied in an organization’s humanresource development with the object of building a robustprofessional base that guarantees an organization of a smoothtransition when critical leaders die, retire, or resign for anorganization.

Thepsychological models under consideration are the human braindominance theory, the neuro-leadership theory, and behavioralinterviewing. The theories are concerned with understanding humanbehavior then infusing it in an organization’s recruitment andpromotional procedures for purposes of obtaining the highest possiblequality of human resources. The decision to choose Apple Corporationas the organization under consideration is based on its uniquehistory, the nature of its human resource and the successfultransition from Steve jobs to Timothy Cook. The exclusivity withwhich Steve jobs managed Apple cast a lot of doubt if his successor,Tim Cook, could fit the bill as the next Chief Executive after theformer’s demise. Looking back into Apple’s corporate history, itis evident that the theoretical models of business psychology can aidcompanies execute such a successful transition. The applicationbusiness psychological models are not restricted promotions andrecruitment, but also in other activities that aim to enhance theeffectiveness and performance of employees throughout the life of theorganization. It is worth noting that the strategies suggested toimplement three theoretical models are continuous and dynamic in thescope of different times as much as the organization is a goingconcern.

ProjectPurpose

Apple’sposition in the market today is a culmination of a high-quality humanresource body and intensive investment in research and developmentfor innovation. Considering that Apple managed to forge a successfulcorporate position even after the death of Steve jobs, this projectinvestigates Apple’s future market position and suggests thepossible HR practices that can bolster its position by applying thetheoretical concepts of business psychology. In the end, the projectaims to achieve four major purposes:

  1. To provoke further research and academic discourse on the applicability of businesses psychological models in long-term strategic positioning corporate entities.

  2. Create confidence in the market: When members of high-performing organizations leave, they often create ripple effects across the markets. Share prices decline sometimes due to uncertainties that the new leaders face. A strategic human resource culture based on effective recruiting and promotions potentially creates many Apple-Company-like scenarios that will create a sense of certainty, no matter the individual composition of the top executive leadership of an organization. In an era personal ventures are growing to be owned by shareholders, the succession plan and human resource strategic positioning of any organization should become a great concern for shareholders. Apple began as a company owned by the Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak, but it grew to be among the most profitable companies in the world with many shareholders. Certainty about the organization’s future lies in Apple’s willingness to ensure that future employees and executives have the skills and the capability to lead the company into the future.

  3. Demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical models of business psychology as a guide to corporate human resource development models. In this case, the project will demonstrate the effectiveness of the human brain dominance instrument, neuroleadership, and behavioral instruments as the guiding theoretical models in developing a human resource that has the capacity to lead the organization into posterity.

  4. Establish a robust theoretical framework that will guide recruiting and promotional practices of organizations into the unforeseeable future.

DesiredOutcomes

  1. A successful demonstration of the application of the human brain dominance instrument model, neuroleadership, and behavioral interviewing. The main goal is the show that the theories can serves as the basis of creating a strong, long-term succession plan for organizations.

  2. A successful discussion of gaps in Apple Company’s succession plan that reveal a different situation from the transition of leadership from Steve jobs and to Tim Cook.

  3. Establish a viable framework that can serve as a guide to the human resource development strategy for modern companies.

  4. Serve as the beginning of research on the best ways organizations can create a continuous succession plan that would enable organizations to deal with a leadership crisis in the vent of retirement, resignation, or even death of strategic leader.

ProjectContext

Thehistory of Apple Inc. puts this discussion into context. It is vitalto first understand the history of the company and how it managed tobuild such a strong company profile through its human resource. Understanding the background of Apple Inc.’s giant-status is thebest way for this project of explains the possible and realisticbusiness psychological models to suggest for its human resourcedevelopment strategy. Other than being a market leader, Apple is apremium a hi-tech entity that needs a strong human resourcedevelopment strategy that can fit its premium brand as well as offersan effective succession regime in the company(Linzmayer,2004)

AppleInc.’s history is a success story, especially in recent times. However, the announcement of Steve job’s resignation caused a fallof the company’s stock by 5 per cent, down from $400 million. Thefall of stocks is a sufficient indicator of role of Steve jobs to theCompany’s success and destiny. Nonetheless, the company remainsthe world’s most valuable company. Steve jobs led Apple intobecoming the most valued producer of software, personal computersmostly consumer electronics. The company has a staff of 49,400employees across the world. By 2010, Apple had $65.23 billion insales. The value of sales increased to $170.9 billion in sales in2014, meaning that that company has been increasing sales by over $25billion every year since Steve jobs passed on. Apple’s strategy isto provide its customers with a mixture of extraordinary products,unique design, and a taste of style, innovative marketing, andcommunications. The company’s latest success was catapulted byiPhone, iPod, and iTunes, as leading products. Apple’s successsignificantly linked to Steve jobs. Steve jobs was the great mind which was behind the company’s success and one the leadentrepreneur behind the innovations that it has been implementingover time. Until his death, Jobs deeply involved in almost of thekey aspects of the company’s operations and its strategicdecisions. It was almost difficult for business analysts andspeculators to imagine of Apple without Steve jobs at the topleadership of the company. Steve jobs prepared the company and itsstaff of his absence by developing certain values that have guidedApple throughout the time. Jobs’ goal was to make company lessreliant on a particular person into perpetuity. Employees weresubjected to supervision and clear instructions to ensure that theylived his vision. Jobs cast himself as a media personality for thecompany and marketing genius that the company will take time toreplace.

Thecompany has managed to maintain the marketing ingenious, but thefuture still remains a notable challenge because the market isincreasingly becoming competitive Furthermore, Apple’s customersalways have high expectations about the next product because theycompare it with previous products. Considering Steve jobs and TimCook have a successful legacy of spinning the company further towardsthe top on global scene, it is quite difficult to wholly replacetheir strategic plans. However, creating and maintaining a qualityhuman resource body remains a significant issue for the company. Itis evident Cook will have a succession plan and exit strategy thesame in the same way as Steve Jobs, but the business circumstances infuture might be different from the present conditions and theconditions company faced during Steve jobs’ departure. Infusing thetheoretical aspects of business psychology in the company’s humanresource development strategy serves as a viable suggestion toimprove Apple’s culture of transitional-readiness. Steve jobs’decision to prepare the company and employees for his departure waswise. Business psychological models are the best approaches toacculturate the company towards transitional-readiness right from therecruitment stage to promotions of departmental managers to seniormanagerial positions or appointment of business executive from thecorporate circles. Owing to the managerial benefits of includingbusiness psychology in human resource development, all employeeswill acquire the skills and the capabilities to manage theorganization at any level as well as perpetuate its innovativeculture without being dependent on the acumen of a single executiveor employee. Whenever senior employees of strategic importance willleave Apple in future for different reasons the company will sufferdrops in stock value as it occurred when Steve jobs left because themarkets will increasingly be confident about the handling of thetransition period.

Relationshipto business psychology Concepts

Themodels in business psychology that are vital in creating a viablehuman resource development program are HBDI, neuroleadership, andbehavioral interviewing.

Hermannbrain dominance instrument (HBDI)

Themodel was introduced into business psychological thinking by NedHermann. The model is a useful tool in breaking down and identifyingthe thinking preferences individual persons and organizations. Themodel states that human beings have different ways of perceiving andingesting information. The HBDI model is administered by aspecialized and experienced practitioner(Borness,Proudfoot,Crawford, &amp Valenzuela, 2013). An organization uses theHGBDI instrument to identify individual thinking preferences amongindividuals. The identification individual thinking traits can aidin grouping individuals based on their leadership potential. Certaintraits are associated with leadership than others(Schuler&amp Jackson, 1987). The HBDI instrument could serve as a guide forgrooming employees into the top leadership of company based on theprofile package results of the assessment. The HBDI is also a vitaltool in the improving teamwork departments, improve leadership,enhance creativity, impart problem-solving skills, and enhancecustomer relationships. The HBDI instrument is the a four-quadrantmodel that shows highly specialized functions and thinkingpreferences of different individuals. The four quadrants representthe four parts of the brain the influences how people think: theright hemisphere, left hemisphere,limbic and cerebral parts. Eachsection has thinking preferences for different individuals. Theresults of HBDI tool will identify an applicant’s category ofpreferred thinking traits as shown:

CerebralMode

A

Logical

Analytical

Fact based

Quantitative

D

Holistic

Intuitive

Integrating

Synthesizing

B

Organized

Sequential

Planned

Detailed

C

Interpersonal

Feeling-based

Kinesthetic

Emotional

Limbicmode

TheHBDI assessment tool has 120 questions that extract information abouta prospective employee. The administrator acting on behalf of thecompany can classify employees based on an individual employee’sprofile.

Neuroleadership

Leadershipis the central tenet for an organization’s ability to create astrong human resource development strategy that has the capability tolast beyond certain leaders(Akinci&ampSadler‐Smith,2012). Neuroleadership is a concept in business psychology thatinvolves synchronizing the scientific aspects of the working of thehuman brain with leadership behavior(Colon-Kolacko,2011). An organization that implements neuroleadership develops theability to effect change in a new leader in accordance with culturalorientation of the company so that the transition does not affect itsshare value, market value, and market position. Graspingneuroleadership is a vital step towards a better understanding ofemotions and behaviors of leaders. Neuroleadership equips a businessleader with the acumen to attach its principles into the overalldevelopment and learning of the organization.

Appleis the right company to embrace neuroleadership because it believesin the use of data analytics to derive facts that guide the generaldecision-making processes. Neuroleadership will impart desirabletraits into the company’s employees because individuals will besubjected to change processes that conform to the interpretation ofbrain-scans and other data(Badenhorst,2015). The defining element of neuroleadership is focused attentionthat facilitates the change processes that an individual shouldfollow. Leaders exposed to neuroleadership have an opportunity tofocus their attention on behaviors that practically make a differenceand take advantage other of different avenues for personal andorganizational change and growth. For instance, employees may readthe company’s articles about the preferential emotional state theyshould be while making vital decisions for the organization. AppleCompany may use the different models of neuroleadership such asAGES-learning model, the SCARF model, and brain-based model toimplement its neuroleadership strategy for new employees(Rock,2008). As soon as an employee is recruited they go through trainingthat exposes them to the AGES-learning model in which the trainerguides them to focus on issues such as:

  1. Attention: The employee is taught to create an atmosphere of rigorous attention and a culture of keenness to details. The training set-up includes challenging case studies and strong facilitators by which they experience real-life managerial or decision –making scenarios(Ghadiri,Habermacher, &amp Peters, 2012). After the training, the employee will be aware of the organization’s decision preferences while aligning their emotional attention to it.

  2. Generation: The trainer frequently asks the new employee to re-use and rephrase concepts throughout the learning process, combine them with relevant stories, and giving them an opportunity to apply the learned concepts into real business situations.

  3. Emotions: The trainer leverages on the potency of emotions to allow the new employee to learn through experience. Involving emotions wires new learning with employee’s perception of life.

  4. Spacing: The new employee learns new organizational concepts throughout their life rather than a one-time experience. The organizational concepts include product quality, creating value from customer experiences, the methods of the expansion, crisis management, and, understanding the organization’s cost structure, market tax regime, and marketing techniques. Most organizations including Apple leave the issues to the senior management. When a senior manager leaves they have to get an experienced executive from outside the organization. The transition regime should follow the spacing technique so that the company prioritizes inward upward mobility. When senior employees come from inside the organization, the transition period is shorter because they

Behavioralinterviewing

Behavioralinterviewing is a hiring technique in which applicants of all jobpositions provide specific examples of how they have behaved andperformed certain tasks or dealt with a problem in the past. Itenables the organization’s human resource department to predictfuture actions and the suitability of applicants for the specificjobs as well as the overall organizational environment. Forinstance, Apple Inc. can use behavioral interviewing to identifyapplicants with the best credentials not just to work as techniciansor innovation experts, but also as managers at any level in thecompany. A combination of managerial and technical experts supportsthe organization’s long-term plan of having employees can quicklyintegrate into the company’s culture and enforce it in case theyhave an opportunity to provide leadership among company ordepartmental executives(Vander Zee, Bakker, &amp Bakker, 2002). When examining behavioralcompetency Apple or any other company should be comfortable withknowing how it gets a foothold in the organization. Apple relies oncompetent engineers and aggressive innovators with a strong customerexperience orientation to produce its high-end personal computers,gadgets and software. Steve jobs had a background of computertechnology and possibly learned issues of management through hismassive corporate experience.

Behavioralinterviewing has the capacity to get individuals with such traits.For instance, a pilot project to identify entry level engineersthrough a campus-level recruitingprogram should have features thathelp interviewers identify recruits with a high level of behavioralcompetency. Apple Inc. may conduct several focus groups to determinethe extent to which its core values would be enacted by topperformers. The information is then used to develop a value-drivenjob profile as the basis of hiring the best qualified software orelectronic and electrical engineers that fit the company’scompetency model and long-term succession plan. Such a process willimprove the ability of Apple’s human resource managers to identifycandidates that possess the technical, managerial, and attitudinalcredentials that can bolster its human resource strategic position.Currently, Apple’s succession plan not defined. However, its hiringprocess has significant elements of behavioral interviewing. Improvements will introduce new elements of succession planning thatplace a lot of emphasis on both replacement as well as the developingcritical talent pools.The succession plan should have sufficientfocus on the high potential talent in five to ten years from theexecutive level. Currently, the company does not have a consolidatedaccount of information about high-potential individuals because it isprobably kept in different databases, making it difficult for itshuman resource experts to retrieve it and use it create a reliableand lasting succession plan.

Possibleimprovements

Thereare several steps that Apple Inc. can take to improve its humanresource development towards a succession orientation. First, thecompany should build a common leadership framework through which newrecruits can define and understand leadership. An ideal leadershipframework is one that integrates the aspects of behavioralinterviewing and the aspects of building a leadership pipeline(Cools,Evans, &amp Redmond, 2009).The central aspect is of this frameworkis for the company’s leadership to understand that leadershipbegins with different tasks that leaders perform, leadership beginsat individual level, and behavioral interviewing can help disclosethe past leadership experiences of potential employees(Wright&amp Boswell, 2002). The questions that applicants face during theinterview should test the candidate’s ability to deal withdifferent transitions while working in the company. The interviewershould make the applicant aware that they are not going to work intheir designated positions for all the time they will be at thecompany, but they rather anticipate promotions towards the topexecutive management of departments and the company at large. Considering that managers undergo significant transitions in careerspaths as they climb the rudder in organization, the interviewquestions should test the candidate’s awareness and knowledge onthe behavioral changes they need to adopt at each stage oforganizational leadership. The scope and intricacy of work increasesat each level, requiring that they acquire new skills, timeapplications, and work ethics that befits a corporate executive. Aviable leadership development plan for Apple should have behavioralinterviewing questions that exploit the applicant’s knowledge ofleadership transitions in the company and their associatedrequirements. In this case, the content of all questions should becustomized based on the company’s expertise requirements. Forexample, questions should ask applicants to recognize the notableresults they need to offer in their specific jobs to warrant to apromotion to a senior position in a department or the organization. Thus, there are six levels of leadership at Apple Inc. that thebehavioral interview must test the applicant’s readiness into itsoverall succession plan:

  1. Individual employee in a department-They work with other employee to ensure that the department contributes to the success of the company.

  2. First-line manager- They lead a team of employee performing a specific function. For instance, for each product under development, there is a line-manager in charge of all the operations in regard to the manufacture of the product. They usually have first-line supervisors reporting to them

  3. Departmental managers: They manage large departments and line-manager report to them on the progress of projects.

  4. Functional manager: They lead a single function or a company’s entity such as an offshore store.

  5. Multifunctional manager- They are in-charge of multiple functional areas. For instance, Apple’s chief operations officer falls into this category.

  6. The CEO/Business unit manager/ enterprise functional manager-They lead the whole company, a major business unit, or a major function at the enterprise level. Apple Inc.’s company structure allows the chief executive to also be in-charge of a specific function such as research and development because they need to understand the key technical aspects that drive innovation and production in the company.

Eachposition in the organization will have questions that seek to get thebehavioral responses from applicants about different issues on ateach level of leadership in the company. However, it is an imperativethat new applicants do not face questions that relate to thehigh-level managerial positions such as CEO, Chief Financial Officer,CFO, and Chief Operating Officer COO because they practically have noexperience to provide accurate response. They lack the technicalknowledge about the typical duties of officers at such high-rankinglevels. Instead, the questions targeting to extract informationapplicants high-ranking positions should be reserved for internalpromotions as a testing tool of their applicant’s grasp of companyoperations and culture. The results of a behavioral interviewedshould be grouped under following categories of performancedimensions:

  1. Business- The interviewee must demonstrate that they have the technical, financial, and operational knowledge that the company requires. An Apple employee applying for a job as software engineer should understand the typical operations of a product development process, the innovations that drive business, and the financial issues involved.

  2. Management: A prospective employee must be in a position to respond to a typical business position that affects the company on a variety of business spectrums such product quality, drivers of competitiveness, maintaining the company’s premium brand, and various aspects of market growth.

  3. Leadership: As far as the long-term succession plan is concerned, all employees must have certain leadership qualities that are desirable to the company. Apple Inc. needs an employee who can be selected at random to lead a project tem into a new product or a new process that will improve customer experience with the company’s products.

  4. Relationships: They must their ability build not just a working relationship, but to motivate other employees to believe in their vision for the project, department, or organization.

  5. Community and the external environment: They must prove that they have a past of active participation in a group.

  6. Customer: Use examples to explain some of the internal and external processes that can improve customer service.

Acombination of the HBDI tool, neuroleadership, and behavioralinterviewing can create a strong succession plan for a company suchas Apple Inc. Employees with unique talent and capabilities areidentified right from the time they are first recruited into company.It, therefore, becomes possible for the company to have a pool ofhuman resources with a high overall capability of leading indifferent capacities of organizational management.

Expectedshareholders benefits

Theexpected shareholders in this research are hi-tech companies,management experts and the academia. The findings that relate to thepossible steps that Apple Company may take perpetuate a culture leftbehind by its former CEO Chief Executive Officer. Management expertscan use the recommendations provided to test craft a succession planthat begins right from the hiring process of new recruits.Considering that organizations are increasingly becoming culturedthrough their uniqueness in dealing with different corporate issues,behavioral interviewing is one of the theoretical frameworks that aimto ensure that the employees an organization hires are the ready tomanage any level of the organizations.

ProjectSchedule

Task ID

Task name

Duration

1

Improving hiring and promotions by implementing: The HBDI tool, neuroleadership, and behavioral interviewing

30 weeks

2

Formulating the Requirements

7 weeks

3

Crafting an interview design

5 weeks

4

Programming

10.5weeks

5

Program Tests for HBDI tools

3 weeks

6

Program Tests for neuroleadership

3.5 weeks

7

Program testing for behavioral interviewing

4 weeks

8

Program Execution

8.5 weeks

9

Execute the HBDI tool

3weeks

10

Execute neuroleadership

1.5 weeks

11

Execute behavioral interviewing

3 weeks

12

Fix defects to each model

1 week

Evaluationof Results

Theresults of executing neuroleadership, the HBDI tool, and behavioralinterviewing will be evaluated based on four main long-termperformance measures:

The normal state recruitment and dealing with succession in the Company (Apple Inc.)

The long-term change after implementing HBDI, Neuroleadership, and Behavioral interviewing in hiring and promotions

No scalability and consistency

Introduction of scalable and research-based methods of identifying qualified employees that fit into the company’s succession plan.

Successors mainly come from the company’s circle of influence

An improved pool of talented and high-value candidates inside the company.

Human resource development procedures and promotion decisions are reactive

Human resource development procedures and promotion decisions become prescriptive and data-driven.

Reflectionon personal learning

Humanresource development follows a specific value-based approach thattakes place in continuity throughout the life of a company. Stevejobs developed his leadership skills and innovation acumen throughouthis time at Apple Inc. Thus, a human resource development scheduleof a company may decide to develop should reflect the performanceorganizational levels as well as various levels of management. Theeffectiveness of HBDI, neuroleadership, and behavioral interviewingshow that candidates should always yearn to take up jobs that fittheir personality so that they can exploit their potential inleadership to the fullest.

References

Akinci,C., &amp Sadler‐Smith,E. (2012). Intuition in management research: A historical review.InternationalJournal of Management Reviews,14(1), 104-122.

Badenhorst,C. (2015). Identifyingand managing the impact of NeuroLeadership during organisationalchange.

Borness,C., Proudfoot, J., Crawford, J., &amp Valenzuela, M. (2013).Puttingbrain training to the test in the workplace: a randomized, blinded,multisite, active-controlled trial. PloSone,8(3), e59982.

Cools,E., Evans, C., &amp Redmond, J. A. (2009).Using styles for moreeffective learning in multicultural and e-learning environments.MulticulturalEducation &amp Technology Journal, 3(1),5-16.

Colon-Kolacko,R. M. (2011). THE STRATEGIC ROLE OF ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT INTALENT MANAGEMENT AND TRANSFORMING LEADERSHIP. OrganizationDevelopment in Health Care: High Impact Practices for a Complex andChanging Environment,63.

Ghadiri,A., Habermacher, A., &amp Peters, T. (2012).FourBasic Human Needs at the Heart of Neuroscience.In Neuroleadership(pp. 69-83).Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Linzmayer,O. (2004). AppleConfidential 2.0(p. 113). San Francisco, CA: No Starch Press.

Rock,D. (2008). SCARF: A brain-based model for collaborating with andinfluencing others. NeuroLeadershipJournal,1(1), 44-52.

Schuler,R. S., &amp Jackson, S. E. (1987).Linking competitive strategieswith human resource management practices. TheAcademy of Management Executive(1987-1989), 207-219.

Vander Zee, K. I., Bakker, A. B., &amp Bakker, P. (2002). Why arestructured interviews so rarely used in personnel selection?.Journalof Applied Psychology,87(1), 176.

Wright,P. M., &amp Boswell, W. R. (2002).Desegregating HRM: A review andsynthesis of micro and macro human resource management research.Journalof management,28(3), 247-276.

MasteryProspectus in HBDI, Neuro-Leadership, and Behavioral Interviewing

ExecutiveSummary

Thisproject focuses on how an organization can secure its future throughstrategic ways of recruiting employees and promoting existing ones.Companies that are currently registering the best performance needsstrategic recruitment and promotion procedures so that they continuethriving. The marketplace in different industries has changed andorganizations need to continuously embrace change. The first type ofchange that happens every day in organizations is employees leavingthe organizations for other companies or personal businesses. Othersleave the organization for wrong reasons such as dismissal. Thecaveat to such dynamics is that Companies end up losing strategicemployees who could be critical to the organizational successionplans. Employees with a clear grasp of an organization’s cultureare the ones that are better placed to lead it through differenttransitions or milestones. In the context of a successful companiessuch as Apple Corporation, this project intends to explain how modelsin business psychology can be applied in an organization’s humanresource development with the object of building a robustprofessional base that guarantees an organization of a smoothtransition when critical leaders die, retire, or resign for anorganization.

Thepsychological models under consideration are the human braindominance theory, the neuro-leadership theory, and behavioralinterviewing. The theories are concerned with understanding humanbehavior then infusing it in an organization’s recruitment andpromotional procedures for purposes of obtaining the highest possiblequality of human resources. The decision to choose Apple Corporationas the organization under consideration is based on its uniquehistory, the nature of its human resource and the successfultransition from Steve jobs to Timothy Cook. The exclusivity withwhich Steve jobs managed Apple cast a lot of doubt if his successor,Tim Cook, could fit the bill as the next Chief Executive after theformer’s demise. Looking back into Apple’s corporate history, itis evident that the theoretical models of business psychology can aidcompanies execute such a successful transition. The applicationbusiness psychological models are not restricted promotions andrecruitment, but also in other activities that aim to enhance theeffectiveness and performance of employees throughout the life of theorganization. It is worth noting that the strategies suggested toimplement three theoretical models are continuous and dynamic in thescope of different times as much as the organization is a goingconcern.

ProjectPurpose

Apple’sposition in the market today is a culmination of a high-quality humanresource body and intensive investment in research and developmentfor innovation. Considering that Apple managed to forge a successfulcorporate position even after the death of Steve jobs, this projectinvestigates Apple’s future market position and suggests thepossible HR practices that can bolster its position by applying thetheoretical concepts of business psychology. In the end, the projectaims to achieve four major purposes:

  1. To provoke further research and academic discourse on the applicability of businesses psychological models in long-term strategic positioning corporate entities.

  2. Create confidence in the market: When members of high-performing organizations leave, they often create ripple effects across the markets. Share prices decline sometimes due to uncertainties that the new leaders face. A strategic human resource culture based on effective recruiting and promotions potentially creates many Apple-Company-like scenarios that will create a sense of certainty, no matter the individual composition of the top executive leadership of an organization. In an era personal ventures are growing to be owned by shareholders, the succession plan and human resource strategic positioning of any organization should become a great concern for shareholders. Apple began as a company owned by the Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak, but it grew to be among the most profitable companies in the world with many shareholders. Certainty about the organization’s future lies in Apple’s willingness to ensure that future employees and executives have the skills and the capability to lead the company into the future.

  3. Demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical models of business psychology as a guide to corporate human resource development models. In this case, the project will demonstrate the effectiveness of the human brain dominance instrument, neuroleadership, and behavioral instruments as the guiding theoretical models in developing a human resource that has the capacity to lead the organization into posterity.

  4. Establish a robust theoretical framework that will guide recruiting and promotional practices of organizations into the unforeseeable future.

DesiredOutcomes

  1. A successful demonstration of the application of the human brain dominance instrument model, neuroleadership, and behavioral interviewing. The main goal is the show that the theories can serves as the basis of creating a strong, long-term succession plan for organizations.

  2. A successful discussion of gaps in Apple Company’s succession plan that reveal a different situation from the transition of leadership from Steve jobs and to Tim Cook.

  3. Establish a viable framework that can serve as a guide to the human resource development strategy for modern companies.

  4. Serve as the beginning of research on the best ways organizations can create a continuous succession plan that would enable organizations to deal with a leadership crisis in the vent of retirement, resignation, or even death of strategic leader.

ProjectContext

Thehistory of Apple Inc. puts this discussion into context. It is vitalto first understand the history of the company and how it managed tobuild such a strong company profile through its human resource. Understanding the background of Apple Inc.’s giant-status is thebest way for this project of explains the possible and realisticbusiness psychological models to suggest for its human resourcedevelopment strategy. Other than being a market leader, Apple is apremium a hi-tech entity that needs a strong human resourcedevelopment strategy that can fit its premium brand as well as offersan effective succession regime in the company(Linzmayer,2004)

AppleInc.’s history is a success story, especially in recent times. However, the announcement of Steve job’s resignation caused a fallof the company’s stock by 5 per cent, down from $400 million. Thefall of stocks is a sufficient indicator of role of Steve jobs to theCompany’s success and destiny. Nonetheless, the company remainsthe world’s most valuable company. Steve jobs led Apple intobecoming the most valued producer of software, personal computersmostly consumer electronics. The company has a staff of 49,400employees across the world. By 2010, Apple had $65.23 billion insales. The value of sales increased to $170.9 billion in sales in2014, meaning that that company has been increasing sales by over $25billion every year since Steve jobs passed on. Apple’s strategy isto provide its customers with a mixture of extraordinary products,unique design, and a taste of style, innovative marketing, andcommunications. The company’s latest success was catapulted byiPhone, iPod, and iTunes, as leading products. Apple’s successsignificantly linked to Steve jobs. Steve jobs was the great mind which was behind the company’s success and one the leadentrepreneur behind the innovations that it has been implementingover time. Until his death, Jobs deeply involved in almost of thekey aspects of the company’s operations and its strategicdecisions. It was almost difficult for business analysts andspeculators to imagine of Apple without Steve jobs at the topleadership of the company. Steve jobs prepared the company and itsstaff of his absence by developing certain values that have guidedApple throughout the time. Jobs’ goal was to make company lessreliant on a particular person into perpetuity. Employees weresubjected to supervision and clear instructions to ensure that theylived his vision. Jobs cast himself as a media personality for thecompany and marketing genius that the company will take time toreplace.

Thecompany has managed to maintain the marketing ingenious, but thefuture still remains a notable challenge because the market isincreasingly becoming competitive Furthermore, Apple’s customersalways have high expectations about the next product because theycompare it with previous products. Considering Steve jobs and TimCook have a successful legacy of spinning the company further towardsthe top on global scene, it is quite difficult to wholly replacetheir strategic plans. However, creating and maintaining a qualityhuman resource body remains a significant issue for the company. Itis evident Cook will have a succession plan and exit strategy thesame in the same way as Steve Jobs, but the business circumstances infuture might be different from the present conditions and theconditions company faced during Steve jobs’ departure. Infusing thetheoretical aspects of business psychology in the company’s humanresource development strategy serves as a viable suggestion toimprove Apple’s culture of transitional-readiness. Steve jobs’decision to prepare the company and employees for his departure waswise. Business psychological models are the best approaches toacculturate the company towards transitional-readiness right from therecruitment stage to promotions of departmental managers to seniormanagerial positions or appointment of business executive from thecorporate circles. Owing to the managerial benefits of includingbusiness psychology in human resource development, all employeeswill acquire the skills and the capabilities to manage theorganization at any level as well as perpetuate its innovativeculture without being dependent on the acumen of a single executiveor employee. Whenever senior employees of strategic importance willleave Apple in future for different reasons the company will sufferdrops in stock value as it occurred when Steve jobs left because themarkets will increasingly be confident about the handling of thetransition period.

Relationshipto business psychology Concepts

Themodels in business psychology that are vital in creating a viablehuman resource development program are HBDI, neuroleadership, andbehavioral interviewing.

Hermannbrain dominance instrument (HBDI)

Themodel was introduced into business psychological thinking by NedHermann. The model is a useful tool in breaking down and identifyingthe thinking preferences individual persons and organizations. Themodel states that human beings have different ways of perceiving andingesting information. The HBDI model is administered by aspecialized and experienced practitioner(Borness,Proudfoot,Crawford, &amp Valenzuela, 2013). An organization uses theHGBDI instrument to identify individual thinking preferences amongindividuals. The identification individual thinking traits can aidin grouping individuals based on their leadership potential. Certaintraits are associated with leadership than others(Schuler&amp Jackson, 1987). The HBDI instrument could serve as a guide forgrooming employees into the top leadership of company based on theprofile package results of the assessment. The HBDI is also a vitaltool in the improving teamwork departments, improve leadership,enhance creativity, impart problem-solving skills, and enhancecustomer relationships. The HBDI instrument is the a four-quadrantmodel that shows highly specialized functions and thinkingpreferences of different individuals. The four quadrants representthe four parts of the brain the influences how people think: theright hemisphere, left hemisphere,limbic and cerebral parts. Eachsection has thinking preferences for different individuals. Theresults of HBDI tool will identify an applicant’s category ofpreferred thinking traits as shown:

CerebralMode

A

Logical

Analytical

Fact based

Quantitative

D

Holistic

Intuitive

Integrating

Synthesizing

B

Organized

Sequential

Planned

Detailed

C

Interpersonal

Feeling-based

Kinesthetic

Emotional

Limbicmode

TheHBDI assessment tool has 120 questions that extract information abouta prospective employee. The administrator acting on behalf of thecompany can classify employees based on an individual employee’sprofile.

Neuroleadership

Leadershipis the central tenet for an organization’s ability to create astrong human resource development strategy that has the capability tolast beyond certain leaders(Akinci&ampSadler‐Smith,2012). Neuroleadership is a concept in business psychology thatinvolves synchronizing the scientific aspects of the working of thehuman brain with leadership behavior(Colon-Kolacko,2011). An organization that implements neuroleadership develops theability to effect change in a new leader in accordance with culturalorientation of the company so that the transition does not affect itsshare value, market value, and market position. Graspingneuroleadership is a vital step towards a better understanding ofemotions and behaviors of leaders. Neuroleadership equips a businessleader with the acumen to attach its principles into the overalldevelopment and learning of the organization.

Appleis the right company to embrace neuroleadership because it believesin the use of data analytics to derive facts that guide the generaldecision-making processes. Neuroleadership will impart desirabletraits into the company’s employees because individuals will besubjected to change processes that conform to the interpretation ofbrain-scans and other data(Badenhorst,2015). The defining element of neuroleadership is focused attentionthat facilitates the change processes that an individual shouldfollow. Leaders exposed to neuroleadership have an opportunity tofocus their attention on behaviors that practically make a differenceand take advantage other of different avenues for personal andorganizational change and growth. For instance, employees may readthe company’s articles about the preferential emotional state theyshould be while making vital decisions for the organization. AppleCompany may use the different models of neuroleadership such asAGES-learning model, the SCARF model, and brain-based model toimplement its neuroleadership strategy for new employees(Rock,2008). As soon as an employee is recruited they go through trainingthat exposes them to the AGES-learning model in which the trainerguides them to focus on issues such as:

  1. Attention: The employee is taught to create an atmosphere of rigorous attention and a culture of keenness to details. The training set-up includes challenging case studies and strong facilitators by which they experience real-life managerial or decision –making scenarios(Ghadiri,Habermacher, &amp Peters, 2012). After the training, the employee will be aware of the organization’s decision preferences while aligning their emotional attention to it.

  2. Generation: The trainer frequently asks the new employee to re-use and rephrase concepts throughout the learning process, combine them with relevant stories, and giving them an opportunity to apply the learned concepts into real business situations.

  3. Emotions: The trainer leverages on the potency of emotions to allow the new employee to learn through experience. Involving emotions wires new learning with employee’s perception of life.

  4. Spacing: The new employee learns new organizational concepts throughout their life rather than a one-time experience. The organizational concepts include product quality, creating value from customer experiences, the methods of the expansion, crisis management, and, understanding the organization’s cost structure, market tax regime, and marketing techniques. Most organizations including Apple leave the issues to the senior management. When a senior manager leaves they have to get an experienced executive from outside the organization. The transition regime should follow the spacing technique so that the company prioritizes inward upward mobility. When senior employees come from inside the organization, the transition period is shorter because they

Behavioralinterviewing

Behavioralinterviewing is a hiring technique in which applicants of all jobpositions provide specific examples of how they have behaved andperformed certain tasks or dealt with a problem in the past. Itenables the organization’s human resource department to predictfuture actions and the suitability of applicants for the specificjobs as well as the overall organizational environment. Forinstance, Apple Inc. can use behavioral interviewing to identifyapplicants with the best credentials not just to work as techniciansor innovation experts, but also as managers at any level in thecompany. A combination of managerial and technical experts supportsthe organization’s long-term plan of having employees can quicklyintegrate into the company’s culture and enforce it in case theyhave an opportunity to provide leadership among company ordepartmental executives(Vander Zee, Bakker, &amp Bakker, 2002). When examining behavioralcompetency Apple or any other company should be comfortable withknowing how it gets a foothold in the organization. Apple relies oncompetent engineers and aggressive innovators with a strong customerexperience orientation to produce its high-end personal computers,gadgets and software. Steve jobs had a background of computertechnology and possibly learned issues of management through hismassive corporate experience.

Behavioralinterviewing has the capacity to get individuals with such traits.For instance, a pilot project to identify entry level engineersthrough a campus-level recruitingprogram should have features thathelp interviewers identify recruits with a high level of behavioralcompetency. Apple Inc. may conduct several focus groups to determinethe extent to which its core values would be enacted by topperformers. The information is then used to develop a value-drivenjob profile as the basis of hiring the best qualified software orelectronic and electrical engineers that fit the company’scompetency model and long-term succession plan. Such a process willimprove the ability of Apple’s human resource managers to identifycandidates that possess the technical, managerial, and attitudinalcredentials that can bolster its human resource strategic position.Currently, Apple’s succession plan not defined. However, its hiringprocess has significant elements of behavioral interviewing. Improvements will introduce new elements of succession planning thatplace a lot of emphasis on both replacement as well as the developingcritical talent pools.The succession plan should have sufficientfocus on the high potential talent in five to ten years from theexecutive level. Currently, the company does not have a consolidatedaccount of information about high-potential individuals because it isprobably kept in different databases, making it difficult for itshuman resource experts to retrieve it and use it create a reliableand lasting succession plan.

Possibleimprovements

Thereare several steps that Apple Inc. can take to improve its humanresource development towards a succession orientation. First, thecompany should build a common leadership framework through which newrecruits can define and understand leadership. An ideal leadershipframework is one that integrates the aspects of behavioralinterviewing and the aspects of building a leadership pipeline(Cools,Evans, &amp Redmond, 2009).The central aspect is of this frameworkis for the company’s leadership to understand that leadershipbegins with different tasks that leaders perform, leadership beginsat individual level, and behavioral interviewing can help disclosethe past leadership experiences of potential employees(Wright&amp Boswell, 2002). The questions that applicants face during theinterview should test the candidate’s ability to deal withdifferent transitions while working in the company. The interviewershould make the applicant aware that they are not going to work intheir designated positions for all the time they will be at thecompany, but they rather anticipate promotions towards the topexecutive management of departments and the company at large. Considering that managers undergo significant transitions in careerspaths as they climb the rudder in organization, the interviewquestions should test the candidate’s awareness and knowledge onthe behavioral changes they need to adopt at each stage oforganizational leadership. The scope and intricacy of work increasesat each level, requiring that they acquire new skills, timeapplications, and work ethics that befits a corporate executive. Aviable leadership development plan for Apple should have behavioralinterviewing questions that exploit the applicant’s knowledge ofleadership transitions in the company and their associatedrequirements. In this case, the content of all questions should becustomized based on the company’s expertise requirements. Forexample, questions should ask applicants to recognize the notableresults they need to offer in their specific jobs to warrant to apromotion to a senior position in a department or the organization. Thus, there are six levels of leadership at Apple Inc. that thebehavioral interview must test the applicant’s readiness into itsoverall succession plan:

  1. Individual employee in a department-They work with other employee to ensure that the department contributes to the success of the company.

  2. First-line manager- They lead a team of employee performing a specific function. For instance, for each product under development, there is a line-manager in charge of all the operations in regard to the manufacture of the product. They usually have first-line supervisors reporting to them

  3. Departmental managers: They manage large departments and line-manager report to them on the progress of projects.

  4. Functional manager: They lead a single function or a company’s entity such as an offshore store.

  5. Multifunctional manager- They are in-charge of multiple functional areas. For instance, Apple’s chief operations officer falls into this category.

  6. The CEO/Business unit manager/ enterprise functional manager-They lead the whole company, a major business unit, or a major function at the enterprise level. Apple Inc.’s company structure allows the chief executive to also be in-charge of a specific function such as research and development because they need to understand the key technical aspects that drive innovation and production in the company.

Eachposition in the organization will have questions that seek to get thebehavioral responses from applicants about different issues on ateach level of leadership in the company. However, it is an imperativethat new applicants do not face questions that relate to thehigh-level managerial positions such as CEO, Chief Financial Officer,CFO, and Chief Operating Officer COO because they practically have noexperience to provide accurate response. They lack the technicalknowledge about the typical duties of officers at such high-rankinglevels. Instead, the questions targeting to extract informationapplicants high-ranking positions should be reserved for internalpromotions as a testing tool of their applicant’s grasp of companyoperations and culture. The results of a behavioral interviewedshould be grouped under following categories of performancedimensions:

  1. Business- The interviewee must demonstrate that they have the technical, financial, and operational knowledge that the company requires. An Apple employee applying for a job as software engineer should understand the typical operations of a product development process, the innovations that drive business, and the financial issues involved.

  2. Management: A prospective employee must be in a position to respond to a typical business position that affects the company on a variety of business spectrums such product quality, drivers of competitiveness, maintaining the company’s premium brand, and various aspects of market growth.

  3. Leadership: As far as the long-term succession plan is concerned, all employees must have certain leadership qualities that are desirable to the company. Apple Inc. needs an employee who can be selected at random to lead a project tem into a new product or a new process that will improve customer experience with the company’s products.

  4. Relationships: They must their ability build not just a working relationship, but to motivate other employees to believe in their vision for the project, department, or organization.

  5. Community and the external environment: They must prove that they have a past of active participation in a group.

  6. Customer: Use examples to explain some of the internal and external processes that can improve customer service.

Acombination of the HBDI tool, neuroleadership, and behavioralinterviewing can create a strong succession plan for a company suchas Apple Inc. Employees with unique talent and capabilities areidentified right from the time they are first recruited into company.It, therefore, becomes possible for the company to have a pool ofhuman resources with a high overall capability of leading indifferent capacities of organizational management.

Expectedshareholders benefits

Theexpected shareholders in this research are hi-tech companies,management experts and the academia. The findings that relate to thepossible steps that Apple Company may take perpetuate a culture leftbehind by its former CEO Chief Executive Officer. Management expertscan use the recommendations provided to test craft a succession planthat begins right from the hiring process of new recruits.Considering that organizations are increasingly becoming culturedthrough their uniqueness in dealing with different corporate issues,behavioral interviewing is one of the theoretical frameworks that aimto ensure that the employees an organization hires are the ready tomanage any level of the organizations.

ProjectSchedule

Task ID

Task name

Duration

1

Improving hiring and promotions by implementing: The HBDI tool, neuroleadership, and behavioral interviewing

30 weeks

2

Formulating the Requirements

7 weeks

3

Crafting an interview design

5 weeks

4

Programming

10.5weeks

5

Program Tests for HBDI tools

3 weeks

6

Program Tests for neuroleadership

3.5 weeks

7

Program testing for behavioral interviewing

4 weeks

8

Program Execution

8.5 weeks

9

Execute the HBDI tool

3weeks

10

Execute neuroleadership

1.5 weeks

11

Execute behavioral interviewing

3 weeks

12

Fix defects to each model

1 week

Evaluationof Results

Theresults of executing neuroleadership, the HBDI tool, and behavioralinterviewing will be evaluated based on four main long-termperformance measures:

The normal state recruitment and dealing with succession in the Company (Apple Inc.)

The long-term change after implementing HBDI, Neuroleadership, and Behavioral interviewing in hiring and promotions

No scalability and consistency

Introduction of scalable and research-based methods of identifying qualified employees that fit into the company’s succession plan.

Successors mainly come from the company’s circle of influence

An improved pool of talented and high-value candidates inside the company.

Human resource development procedures and promotion decisions are reactive

Human resource development procedures and promotion decisions become prescriptive and data-driven.

Reflectionon personal learning

Humanresource development follows a specific value-based approach thattakes place in continuity throughout the life of a company. Stevejobs developed his leadership skills and innovation acumen throughouthis time at Apple Inc. Thus, a human resource development scheduleof a company may decide to develop should reflect the performanceorganizational levels as well as various levels of management. Theeffectiveness of HBDI, neuroleadership, and behavioral interviewingshow that candidates should always yearn to take up jobs that fittheir personality so that they can exploit their potential inleadership to the fullest.

References

Akinci,C., &amp Sadler‐Smith,E. (2012). Intuition in management research: A historical review.InternationalJournal of Management Reviews,14(1), 104-122.

Badenhorst,C. (2015). Identifyingand managing the impact of NeuroLeadership during organisationalchange.

Borness,C., Proudfoot, J., Crawford, J., &amp Valenzuela, M. (2013).Puttingbrain training to the test in the workplace: a randomized, blinded,multisite, active-controlled trial. PloSone,8(3), e59982.

Cools,E., Evans, C., &amp Redmond, J. A. (2009).Using styles for moreeffective learning in multicultural and e-learning environments.MulticulturalEducation &amp Technology Journal, 3(1),5-16.

Colon-Kolacko,R. M. (2011). THE STRATEGIC ROLE OF ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT INTALENT MANAGEMENT AND TRANSFORMING LEADERSHIP. OrganizationDevelopment in Health Care: High Impact Practices for a Complex andChanging Environment,63.

Ghadiri,A., Habermacher, A., &amp Peters, T. (2012).FourBasic Human Needs at the Heart of Neuroscience.In Neuroleadership(pp. 69-83).Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Linzmayer,O. (2004). AppleConfidential 2.0(p. 113). San Francisco, CA: No Starch Press.

Rock,D. (2008). SCARF: A brain-based model for collaborating with andinfluencing others. NeuroLeadershipJournal,1(1), 44-52.

Schuler,R. S., &amp Jackson, S. E. (1987).Linking competitive strategieswith human resource management practices. TheAcademy of Management Executive(1987-1989), 207-219.

Vander Zee, K. I., Bakker, A. B., &amp Bakker, P. (2002). Why arestructured interviews so rarely used in personnel selection?.Journalof Applied Psychology,87(1), 176.

Wright,P. M., &amp Boswell, W. R. (2002).Desegregating HRM: A review andsynthesis of micro and macro human resource management research.Journalof management,28(3), 247-276.