1a. When defining racism, Wellman refers to it as a system ofadvantages based on race. His definition differs from what I woulddefine the term. I would refer to racism as a set of discriminationsbased on color and ethnic background. Wellman believes that racismresults in various advantages while in the real sense those whosuffer racism can only express a series of inflictions hurled againstthem. However, when looking at those who perpetrate racism againstthe blacks, they enjoy some privileges as a result of their racialbackground. Conversely, I agree that it is a system since it runs ina society.
b. When discussing the history of American the struggle that thecountry went through to achieve racial equality, vividly remembersthe professor highlighting on some of the injustices committedagainst colored people. Most of the students could not help but gazeon two colored students sitting in the second row to get a glimpse oftheir reactions. While it is inevitable on such important aspects ofthe American history, I believe it resulted in a feeling ofinferiority of the two students. The advantages ad privileges heapedupon the whites rusted in the injustices that the professorexplained. They included access to quality health care, owningplantations and access to education while the colored people spenttheir days breaking their backs in the plantations for food andshelter. Although the era ended, racism drastically became poorlypracticed, the expression, on the whole, students concluded that theystill harbored a sense of superiority over the colored students.
2. I keep social groups that are active in outdoor activities, and Iam a member of the neighborhood basketball team, and we usually playon weekends against the neighboring teams. One weekend earlier thisyear we went to play against a team in a black dominatedneighborhood. During the game, any score would not be celebrated orrebuked basic on the skills of each team. Most of the team membersconfessed feeling threatened by the fans and they could not make theright passes or attack aggressively. We looked forward to ending thegame rather than winning. The fans would make racial cat calls onany white player, and we felt threatened. The rival team benefitedfrom the action because we could not concentrate on the game due tothe verbal attacks from the fans. We ended up losing the game and wewere happy to return home peacefully without any aggression with themembers of the other team.
b. In the group, we have the privilege of using the lawns in theneighborhood without the residents making a lot of complaints. Wealso enjoy the privilege of playing against other teams and majorityof the teams in the area are dominantly white. I feel that the reasonthe rival team does not get many invites in because people stillharbor some passive racial thoughts.
3. As the author puts it, the whites enjoy various privilegesintentionally and unknowingly. They include better access to jobs andhousing, shopping in different departmental stores and findingappropriate hair care products. The white children may not alsoexperience discrimination in schools. Also while expressingthemselves the whites were viewed as a racial group. I am also abeneficiary of racism unintentionally. The neighboring in which Ireside has a history of white dominance. The composition of the areadates back to several decades when influential families wereallocated the area by the authorities. The residents did not allowthe settling of blacks in the neighborhood and the trend continuedeven when era of inequality ended. The area is well lit, and thehousing plans have not changed much. They are well spaced, and eachhousehold has a big courtyard, and it is envy for many. It alwaysconsidered as a safe place to bring up children.
4. When defining active racism, most he refers to the intentionactions of bigotry or discrimination aimed at one racial group. Heuses the example of a hood wearing clan member in open rebelliontowards one group. He also defines passive racism as more subtle andnot profoundly intensive. People only realize it in passing, and theydo not pay much attention to it. Also, after the incidents thattrigger racial thought passes, people rarely revisit the issue, butit confirms that there are still discriminative feelings in asociety. The author uses the example of a racist joke that makespeople laugh as the best example of racism. In 2015, there was aseries of burnings of the black churches in the southern states. Iconsider this as an active racial tendency. Also, the example givenin the class of people directing attention to the two studentssitting in the front of the class during a discussion that touched onthe history of slavery in America is a form of passive racism. Inresponding to the two situations, I consider the arson directed t theblacks’ churches as criminal. Also, I do not linger so much onpassive racism to avoid blowing the issue to the point of affectingrelationships.
5. Wellman uses objects the using of the terms prejudice and racisminterchangeably. I agree with him because racism is more thanfeelings, attitudes and beliefs that one group may have towards theother. creates a system that also embeds in the social andpolitical structure of a country. There are several other prejudicesthat people face other than racial discrimination. For example, theMuslims living in the United States are still suffering fromIslamophobia and many people believe that they have terroristthoughts. Those in who hail from the community feel insecure whilewalking din the streets because they are easy targets for thesecurity agents. They may face a lengthy screening than their othercitizens from America. The gay community is also suffering fromprejudices mostly from people with conservative thoughts. Suchprejudices may affect their participation in the activities of thecommunity since people may not value their opinions.