The Effects of Smoking in the Southeast Side of the Bronx among Male and

TheEffects of Smoking in the Southeast Side of the Bronx among Male andFemale Population

TheEffects of Smoking in the Southeast Side of the Bronx among Male andFemale Population


1.Health promoting-behaviors that should be changed in the program thatis going to be implemented

Thereare two major health promoting behaviors that will be changed in theprogram. The first type of behavior is the avoidance of substanceabuse. In most cases, smoking tobacco goes hand in hand with theabuse of other drugs, such as marijuana, alcohol, and cocaine amongothers (Wngel &amp Scalf, 2010). To this end, helping the victims oftobacco addiction stop abusing other types of drugs is among the keyhealth promoting behavior that can accelerate smoking cessation.Therefore, instead of simply helping the victims of smoking additionlook for alternatives (such as coffee) that can help them stopsmoking, the program will encourage them to stop abusing other harddrugs and alcohol, in order to make it easier for them to stopsmoking cigarettes.

Secondly,avoiding old friends and making new ones is part of behavioralinterventions that accelerate smoking cessation. This is based on thefindings that peer pressure is among the risk factors that makepeople smoke cigarette (Pires-Fantouda &amp Sykes, 2012). Therefore,instead of encouraging the victims of smoking addiction to keep alarge group of support friends, the intervention program will helpthem make a network of a few non-smoking friends and reduce the timethey spend with old friends. This is because maintaining the companyof old peer groups increase the risk of smoking again.

2.Environmental conditions that should be present to facilitate thechance of behaviors

Asuccessful change of behavior requires an environment that can helpthe victims of tobacco addiction adopt alternative andhealth-promoting behaviors. The first condition is the presence of anenvironment that is free of drugs, including cigarettes and otherhard drugs. This condition will reduce the accessibility ofcigarettes and other drugs, thus reducing the victims’ chances ofreturning to unhealthy behaviors before the end of the recoveryprocess (Wngel &amp Scalf, 2010). A drug free environment can beachieved in several ways. For example, avoiding the company offriends who abuse drugs (including the cigarette) will reduce theaccessibility of cigarette. In addition, avoiding places (such asslums) where drugs are readily available will protect victims of thecigarette addiction from being tempted to smoke or abuse other drugsthat increase their risk of smoking.

Thesecond condition is a supportive environment, which will be achievedby assigning the victims to qualified counselors and connecting themto social support networks in which they care share experiences andencourage each other in the journey of recovering from cigaretteaddiction. A supportive environment will help the victims ofcigarette addition replace unhealthy behaviors with healthier onesand reduce the risk of relapse (Pires-Fantouda &amp Sykes, 2012).

3.Behavior and environmental outcomes

Theoutcome of each of the health-promoting behavior and environmentalcondition is expected to support the process of recovering fromtobacco addiction. Avoiding peer groups comprising of individuals whouse cigarettes will reduce chances of relapse by reducing the senseof satisfaction from the use of among individual addicts(Pires-Fantouda &amp Sykes, 2012). Peer pressure is among the riskfactors for smoking, where the smoking friends convince others thatsmoking is fun and satisfying. Avoiding such friends will help theaddicts reduce the perceived pleasure that they get from smoking.Avoiding the abuse of other types of drugs (such as marijuana) willreduce the urge of smoking among tobacco addicts. Reducing theavailability of cigarettes and other drugs is expected to lower therisk of relapse and increase chances for a successful recovery fromaddiction (Gulliver, Kamholz &amp Helstrom, 2006). This is becauseis because subjecting addicts to a drug free environment help themfind alternative ways of getting satisfaction and addressingstressful situations. A supportive environment is also expected toincrease chances for recovery and reduce chances of relapsing tosmoking.

4.Performance objectives

Objective1: To help the 90 % of the program participants break friendshipswith their smoking peers by January 2017.

Objective2: To reduce the number of residents abusing hard drugs by 30 % bythe January 2017.

Objective3: To help 90 % of the program participants avoid the shops andstreets known for selling cigars and other drugs by January 2017.

Objective4: Connect about 80 % of the addicts in the Southeast Bronx tosupport groups by January 2017.

5.Determinants of health behavior and environmental outcomes

Thesuccess of the program will be indicated by several determinants.Some of the key determinants will include self-efficacy, perceivedcontrol over the individual’s behavior, and personal agency.

6.Matrix of change objectives


Determinant 1: Self efficacy

Determinant 2: Perceived control

Determinant 3: Personal agency

Objective 1: To help the 90 % of the program participants break friendships with their smoking peers by January 2017.

Participants express confidence in their ability to ties with smoking peers

Objective 2: To reduce the number of residents abusing hard drugs by 30 % by the January 2017.

Participants express confidence in their ability to stop using hard drugs.

Participants express their ability to initiate alternative ways of seeking pleasure and addressing stress.

Objective 3: To help 90 % of the program participants avoid shops and streets known for selling cigars and other drugs by January 2017.

Participants demonstrate their ability to control their movements and their attraction to risky areas.

Participants express their ability to decide the places and streets that they will visit and those that they should not visit.

Objective 4: Connect about 80 % of the addicts in Southeast Bronx to support groups by January 2017.

Participants express confidence in their own ability to establish social networks and overcome the behaviors that increase the risk of smoking.

Participants express their capacity to interact with members of support groups with the aim of learning and getting support in the processes of ceasing smoking.

II.Literature review

Althoughsmoking is an addictive behavior, it starts can be attributed tosimple factors, such as adventure, attempts to address stress, andpeer pressure. This implies that smoking and its subsequent additioncan be attributed to unhealthy behaviors, which means that behavioralinterventions are the first line strategies that can lead tosuccessful smoking cessation. According to Roberts (2013) theaddictive and habitual nature of tobacco smoking makes cessationquite difficult. To this end, clinical guidelines suggest that theuse of pharmaceutical products cannot be effective unless they areaccompanied by with behavioral interventions. Smoking is associatedwith the adoption of unhealthy behaviors. Gulliver, Kamholz &ampHelstrom (2006) stated that smoking can be stopped by adoptinghealthy behaviors that counter the unhealthy behaviors that increasedthe risk of smoking.

Differentresearchers have established the association between smoking and theuse of other types of drugs. For example, Wngel &amp Scalf (2010)most of illicit drugs influence the process of developing dependenceand increase the chances for using any drugs as long as the addictachieves the desired satisfaction. A similar survey conducted byLitle (2000) indicated that smokers tend to have an acceptingattitude regarding other types of drugs. To this end, therapistsshould consider the possibility that the smoking addict could beusing other drugs. The implementation of the smoking interventions,while the addicted person is still using other type of drugs rendersthe medication and behavioral measures futile.

Peerpressure is among the key risk factors that increase the risk ofsmoking. Researchers have applied some efforts to determine the roleof friendship and social life in the smoking and smoking cessation.According to Pires-Fantouda &amp Sykes (2012) the majority ofsmokers are social people who find strength in social groups, whichimply that the social support ground is effective cessationintervention. Organizing addicts in groups of other smokers who wishto stop smoking creates a platform for them to share ideas andsupport each other, which increase therapeutic outcome.

III.Title and brief description of the project topic

Thetopic of the present research is “The Effects of Smoking in theSoutheast side of the Bronx among males and female population”.This implies that the project will focus on the effects of smoking onboth women and men living in Southeast Bronx. The need to conduct aresearch on this topic can be attributed to a report that about 25 %of all residents (including over 3,000 high school students), bothmale and female, living in Southeast Bronx smoke (Delevingne, 2007).The research will focus on how smoking affects this population andpossible interventions that can be used to help the smoking residentsand those who are already addicted to stop smoking. Therefore, theresearch will propose a program entailing the interventions andobjectives of smoking cessation.


Delevingne,L. (2007). Health goes up in smoke when temptation is cheap. CityLimits.Retrieved February 20, 2016, from

Gulliver,S., Kamholz, W. &amp Helstrom, W. (2006). Smoking cessation andalcohol abstinence: What do the data tell use? AlcoholResearch and Health,29 (3), 208-212.

Little,J. (2000). Behavioral mechanisms underlying the link between smokingand drinking. AlcoholResearch and Health,24 (4), 215-224.

Pires-Fantouda,R. &amp Sykes, C. (2012). A group intervention or smoking cessation:The impact of a group cohesion strategy on attendance and outcome.InternationalJournal of Psychology and Behavior Sciences,2 (2), 16-21.

Roberts,J. (2013). Behavior interventions associated with smoking cessationin the treatment of Tobacco use. HealthService Insight,6, 79-85.

Wngel,C. &amp Scalf, N. (2010). The slipping slope: A connection betweensmoking and drug attitude. PacificJournal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activities,1 (2), 1-9.